Ten Important Developments for China’s Foreign Aid in 2018

中文 English

Editor’s Note

This article was originally written by Prof. Tang Lixia, from the China Institute for South-South Cooperation in Agriculture of the China Agricultural University, and published by the WeChat account of the China Lingshan Council for the Promotion of Philanthropy (中国灵山公益慈善促进会) on the 27th of December. What follows is CDB’s translation. The article summarises the ten main events of the year in the field of China’s foreign aid, as seen by the author.

Foreword

So we have got to the end of the year again. This year has proven to be an extremely important one for China’s foreign aid. Many events have happened that will shape the future development of China’s role in this space. Below we have selected the ten most consequential events of 2018 in this area.

1. The Addis Ababa–Djibouti railway is opened

China-Africa cooperation on infrastructure enters a new stage

On January 1, the 752.7 kilometre electrified railway connecting Ethiopia’s Addis Ababa with Djibouti was officially opened to traffic. This railway was regarded as an early harvest of the “Belt and Road Initiative” and of the “10 Major China-Africa Cooperation Plans” presented at the Johannesburg Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation. It is also a landmark project for the “three networks and one transformation” (三网一化) (a high-speed railway network, a highway network, a regional aviation network and industrialization) and cooperation on industrial capacity between China and Africa.

The railway adopts the Chinese railway standards, and after its opening the Chinese contractor will also provide a six-year operation and maintenance contract and a two-year technical service contract, bringing China’s railway operations and maintenance management experience to Africa. The opening of this railway marks a new stage in infrastructural cooperation between China and Africa.

2. The China International Development Cooperation Agency is established

Promoting the professionalisation of China’s foreign aid

截图20181227154395

The opening ceremony of the China International Development Cooperation Agency. Photo credit: China International Development Cooperation Agency

In March, the Chinese government promulgated the “Regulations on Deepening the Reform of Party and State Institutions”, and announced the establishment of the China International Development Cooperation Agency as an organ directly under the State Council. The government combined the responsibilities of the Ministry of Commerce for foreign aid work and of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for foreign aid coordination into this new institution. The China International Development Cooperation Agency is supposed to formulate strategic guidelines, plans and policies for foreign aid, coordinate major foreign aid issues and provide advice, revise foreign aid approaches, prepare foreign aid programs and plans, identify foreign aid projects, and supervise and assess the implementation of these projects.

The establishment of the China International Development Cooperation Agency has far-reaching implications for the development of China’s foreign aid and has attracted widespread attention in international and Chinese society. The international community hopes that through the establishment of a unified aid agency, China’s foreign aid agencies will become more effective, making China a more important provider of development financing and playing a more favourable role within global development cooperation.

From the information on the various meetings and talks held by the main leaders of the China International Development Cooperation Agency published on the agency’s official website, it seems that representatives of major international bilateral aid agencies, multilateral aid agencies, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector have all visited the China International Development Cooperation Agency to exchange information and discuss cooperation. Chinese society hopes that the establishment of the China International Development Cooperation Agency can bring some improvement to the fragmentation of China’s foreign aid management, better serve the Belt and Road Initiative and promote the concept of “building a community of shared future for mankind”.

As of now, the establishment of the China International Development Cooperation Agency is progressing smoothly. By September the Chinese/English/French portal of the organization had been launched online, and its internal structure had been basically set.

3. China’s “South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund” funds aid project in Pakistan

On April 23, the closing ceremony of the South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund’s aid project to Pakistan was held in Islamabad, marking its successful completion. China’s South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund was announced by President Xi at the United Nations Development Summit in September 2015. China provided US$2 billion during the first phase and increased it by US$1 billion in 2017 to support sustainable development in developing countries.

The South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund started a project in November 2017 in cooperation with the World Food Programme and the United Nations Development Programme, in order to improve livelihoods in areas of Pakistan including Balochistan and tribal areas affected by war and natural disasters. The project lasted four months, helped some 8,100 families in the tribal areas of Pakistan to return to their homes, and provided teaching and learning facilities to 423 schools in Balochistan benefiting nearly 240,000 local people. The successful completion of the project marks the fact that the South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund, a new type of Chinese foreign aid, has entered its operational phase.

4. The seventh forum on China-Africa cooperation is held in Beijing

Making a blueprint for the future of China-Africa cooperation

截图20181227762201

The summit (Photo credit: Xinhuanet)

In September this year, the 7th Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation was held in Beijing. Compared with previous summits, this one had a larger scale. Heads of state, heads of government, heads of delegations, presidents of the African Union Commission, foreign ministers and ministers responsible for economic cooperation from China and 53 African countries attended the forum and ministers’ meetings respectively.

The summit issued the Beijing Action Plan (2019-2021), consolidating collaboration between China and Africa in politics, the economy, social development, the humanities, peace and security, and international cooperation over the next three years. China proposed to provide 60 billion US dollars in support of Africa through government assistance, financial institutions, and corporate investment and financing. The collaboration will manifest itself in eight major action plans, blueprinted as industrial promotion, infrastructure connectivity, trade facilitation, green development, capacity building, health care, people-to-people exchanges, and peace and security.

China’s improvement on its strategies toward Africa has had a positive impact on the international community’s policies regarding Africa. Western countries have been adjusting existing policies and introducing new ones in the hope of creating a more favourable environment for Africa’s development.

5. Japan announces it will cease providing aid to China

China has turned from an aid-receiving country into an aid-providing country

In October, on the eve of Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s visit to China, the Japan Broadcasting Corporation published an article entitled “Japan ends aid to China, moves towards “reciprocal” development”. This move fits in to the broader trend which started in 2008, when Japan ceased to provide loan assistance, after which it has gradually cut down on the amount of aid and technical assistance to China, in the end announcing the cessation of all its official aid. The China-Japan relationship in international development is moving toward collaboration, especially through trilateral cooperation mechanism and other multilateral mechanisms.

In 2007, the National Bureau of Statistics of China announced that the country’s per capita gross national income reached $2010 in 2006, becoming a middle-income country by the World Bank’s standard. The World Bank actually regarded China as a middle-income country as early as 1997, and stopped providing soft loans to China in 2000. The World Food Program announced it would cease food aid to China in 2005, Germany decided to stop giving aid in 2005, and the United Kingdom announced it would stop providing aid in 2011. The great majority of traditional aid providers have gradually reduced or stopped providing development assistance to China, and interactions have shifted towards collaboration or tripartite cooperation. In the field of international development, China has moved from being a “recipient country” to being a “cooperation partner” and a new “provider country” of development material.

6. Press conference on Chinese agricultural aid projects in Africa is held with UNDP

Showing that China is starting to focus on the promotion of South-South cooperation in the field of knowledge

On October 29, the China International Development Cooperation Agency and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) jointly organized a case study report on China’s agricultural aid projects to Africa in the United Nations in New York. This was the first such cooperation between the Chinese government and the UNDP. The report contained an evaluation of two agricultural technology cooperation projects, one in Guinea-Bissau and the other one at the Agricultural Technology Demonstration Centre in Mozambique, serving as a reference for what can be achieved through South-South cooperation.

The publication of the case report marks the extension of the form of multilateral cooperation represented by the Chinese government and the UN system, which has gone from funding and technical cooperation to cooperation in the realm of knowledge. Coincidentally, in September, the China Institute for South-South Cooperation in Agriculture of the China Agricultural University released the “South-South Cooperation Assessment Report” at the Think Tank Dialogue Seminar of the Global Coalition of Think Tank Networks for South-South Cooperation held at the UN headquarters, and shared some of the results of Chinese-Tanzanian South-South cooperation.

7. The global agriculture South-South cooperation forum is held

Promoting global South-South cooperation in agriculture

In November, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas jointly organized the “High-Level Forum on Global South-South Agriculture” in Changsha, Hunan to promote “global South-South cooperation in agriculture”. China has been actively participating in global South-South cooperation in agriculture, and it is the largest provider of funds and experts within the South-South and Tripartite Cooperation projects of FAO.

China has donated 80 million US dollars to FAO to establish a trust fund to promote South-South cooperation in global agriculture. So far, the China Trust Fund project has implemented 12 national projects in 11 countries, dispatched nearly 300 Chinese experts and technicians to carry out field demonstrations and trainings for local farmers and technicians, organized more than 50 capacity building training groups in China, and invited more than 500 senior officials and experts to visit China. The first assessment report of the China-FAO South-South Cooperation Project was also released during the forum.

8. The 26th APEC Forum is held in Papua New Guinea

Embracing more collaboration opportunities between China and the Pacific island countries

In November, President Xi Jinping attended the 26th APEC meeting in Papua New Guinea. During the meeting, he also held a collective meeting with the leaders of the eight Pacific island countries. China expressed its willingness to work with the Pacific island countries to promote the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and support the island countries in proceeding with the “Blue Pacific” initiative. It will also provide assistance to the island countries on climate change issues, and work together to promote the effective implementation of the Paris Agreement in order to promote sustainable development on a global scale.

The deepening of cooperation between China and the Pacific island countries began in 2014, when President Xi Jinping visited Fiji for the first time and held a collective meeting with the leaders of the eight countries to enhance the relationship between them and China and expand their collaboration. In particular, after the “Belt and Road Initiative” was put forward, in-depth cooperation began between China and the Pacific island countries in infrastructure and interconnectedness, marine development, environmental protection, development and utilization of fishery resources, and responses to climate change.

9. The Foreign Aid Management Law draft is released

The China International Development Cooperation Agency publicly solicits feedback on the new law

In November, the China International Development Cooperation Agency issued the draft of the “Foreign Aid Management Law” and publicly solicited feedback from all levels of society. The draft has a total of six chapters and 42 articles, clarifying the basic concepts of foreign aid and the key supervisory authorities, specifying the foreign aid policies and the main responsible institutions, laying out the use and management of three types of Chinese aid funds, announcing that project-based aid is the key approach of Chinese foreign aid, explaining the management functions of government departments at all levels, and clarifying the supervision and evaluation of foreign aid and the related legal responsibilities. The release of this draft also signifies that China’s foreign aid will move towards a more institutionalized and standardized development.

10. China’s foreign aid medical team celebrates its 55th anniversary

Healthcare assistance has become an important part of China-Africa cooperation

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China’s Foreign Aid Medical Team (Photo credit: internet)

This year marks the 55th anniversary of the dispatch of China’s foreign aid medical team. In 1963, China dispatched the first non-medical team to Algeria. Since then more than 20,000 medical personnel members have participated in foreign aid medical work in Africa, treating 220 million African patients throughout 55 years. Currently, there are Chinese medical teams in 45 countries in Africa.

In addition to dispatching medical teams, China has done a lot in Africa in terms of health assistance. It has built hospitals in 32 countries, signed cooperation agreements with hospitals in 15 African countries including Ethiopia and Zanzibar (Tanzania), carried out demonstration projects on maternal and child health in Cape Verde, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, Sierra Leone, Malawi, Ghana, and Madagascar, and held more than 30 “brightness trips” in which more than 200 ophthalmologists were sent to perform surgery on more than 9,000 African cataract patients. Healthcare assistance has thus become an important part of China-Africa cooperation.

2018年中国对外援助十大事件盘点

2018-12-27 10:08:55  来源:中国灵山公益慈善促进会  作者:国际发展时报    点击数量:491

前言

又是到了岁末,今年对于中国对外援助来说,是非常重要的一年,发生了众多重要的大事,对于未来中国对外援助的发展会产生深远的影响。我们在这里进行一一盘点。

整理人:唐丽霞,教授,博士,中国农业大学人文与发展学院/中国南南农业合作学院 01.亚吉铁路开通 中非基础设施合作进入新阶段

 

1月1日,全长752.7公里的联通埃塞俄比亚亚的斯亚贝巴和吉布提的电气化铁路正式通车,这条铁路被视为是落实“一带一路”倡议和中非合作论坛约翰内斯堡峰会“十大合作计划”的早期收获,也是中非“三网一化””(高速铁路网、高速公路网、区域航空网、工业化)和产能合作的标志性工程。

 

这条铁路采用了中国铁路标准,并且在通车后,中国承建企业还将为亚吉铁路提供6年运营维护合同和2年技术服务合同,将中国铁路运营维护管理经验引入到非洲。亚吉铁路开通,标志着中非基础设施合作进入新阶段。

 

02.国家国际发展合作署成立 推动中国对外援助专门化

 

中国国家国际发展署揭牌仪式,图片来自国际国家发展合作署

 

3月,中国政府公布《关于深化党和国家机构改革方案》,宣布组建国家国际发展合作署,作为国务院的直属机构,并将商务部对外援助工作的有关职责,和外交部对外援助协调等职责整合于整个新机构中,国家国际发展合作署负责拟定对外援助战略方针、规划、政策,统筹协调援外重大问题并提出建议,推进援外方式改革,编制对外援助方案和计划,确定对外援助项目并监督评估实施情况等。

 

国家国际发展合作署的组建对中国对外援助的发展意义深远,在国际和国内社会引起了广泛的关注,国际社会期待通过建立统一的援助机构,中国对外援助机构将变得更加有效和更统一,推动中国成为发展融资更为重要的提供者,在全球发展合作中扮演更有利的角色,从目前国家国际合作署官方网站上发布的合作署主要领导参加的各种会见和会谈活动信息来看,国际主要双边援助机构、多边援助机构、非政府组织以及私营部门的代表都纷纷拜访国家国际发展合作署,交流信息和商议合作等。国内社会则期待国家国际合作署的成立能够有效改变当前我国对外援助管理碎片化的局面,能够更好地服务于一带一路倡议和构建人类命运共同体。

 

目前,国家国际发展合作署的组建工作进展顺利,9月,国家国际发展署的中英法文门户网站上线运行,合作署的内设机构基本确定。

 

03.中国“南南合作援助基金” 第一个援助巴基斯坦项目圆满结束

 

4月23 日,中国 " 南南合作援助基金 " 对巴基斯坦援助项目结项仪式在伊斯兰堡举行,标志着该框架下对巴援助项目圆满完成。中国“南南合作基金项目”是2015年9月中国国家主席习近平在联合国发展峰会上宣布设立的,首期提供20亿美元,2017年,中国又增资10亿美元,支持发展中国家落实可持续发展议程。

 

为帮助巴遭受战乱和自然灾害影响的联邦部落地区和俾路支省改善民生,2017年11月“南南合作援助基金”和世界粮食计划署和联合国开发计划署合作执行,该项目历时四个月,帮助巴联邦部落地区约 8100 个家庭进行重返家园后的生活安置,并为俾路支省 423 所学校提供教学设施及学习用具,惠及近 24 万当地民众。该项目的顺利完成标志着“南南合作援助基金”这种新型的中国对外援助方式进入了实质性的运行阶段。

 

04.第七次北京中非合作峰会 为未来中非合作规划蓝图

 

第七次中非合作峰会 图片来自:新华网

 

今年9月,第七次中非合作峰会在北京召开,和历届峰会相比,这一次峰会规模最大,来自中国和53个非洲国家的国家元首、政府首脑、代表团团长、非洲联盟委员会主席以及外交部长和负责经济合作事务的部长分别出席了峰会和部长会。

 

此次峰会发表了《中非合作论坛---北京行动计划(2019-2021年)》,对未来三年中非在政治、经济、社会发展、人文、和平安全和国际合作等方面的合作内容、方式、规模都进行的深入的规划和设计,中国提出要通过政府援助、金融机构和企业投融资等方式,再向非洲提供600亿美元支持,提出了实施产业促进行动、设施联通行动、贸易便利行动、绿色发展行动、能力建设行动、健康卫生行动、人文交流行动和和平安全行动等八大行动计划,这一次峰会为未来中非合作的不断推进和发展提供了规划蓝图。

 

中国对非战略的不断成熟和完善,对国际社会对非政策文件的调整产生了积极的影响,西方国家也纷纷出台新的对非政策文件,调整对非战略,为非洲发展创造更为有利的环境。

 

05.日本宣布停止对华援助 中国从受援国向援助国转变

 

图片来自:网络

 

10月,在日本首相安倍晋三访华前夕,日本广播协会刊发题为《日本结束对华援助,今后朝“对等”发展》的文章,这是日本继2008年停止对华贷款援助后,并且逐渐减少对华无偿援助和技术援助额度后,最终停止对华提供官方发展援助,从而中日之间在国际发展合作领域的关系将更多朝向合作方向迈进,中国和日本将更多通过三边合作机制和其他多边机制进行合作。

 

2007年,中国国家统计局宣布我国人均国民总收入在2006年已经达到了2010美元,按照世界银行的划分标准,我国已经由低收入国家步入了中等收入国家的行列;按照世界银行的标准,中国则早在1997年就已经进入中等收入国家,因此,世界银行早在2000年就开始停止对华提供软贷款,2005年世界粮食计划署宣布停止对华提供粮食援助,2009年德国宣布停止对华提供援助,2011年英国宣布停止对华援助,绝大部分的传统援助体都逐渐减少或停止了对华官方发展援助,转向和中国开展共同合作或三方合作,中国在国际发展合作领域从“受援国”转变为“合作国”和新的发展资源“提供国”。

 

06.中国援非农业项目案例报告发布会 标志着中国开始注重南南合作知识产品的生产和推广

 

10月29日,国家国际合作署与联合国开发计划署在纽约联合国共同举办中国援非农业项目案例研究报告发布会,这是中国政府与联合国开发计划署首次进行此类合作,该研究报告通过对几内亚比绍的农业技术合作项目和莫桑比克的农业技术示范中心两个农业援助项目的评估,以展示南南合作可以实现的目标。

 

该案例报告的发布标志着中国政府和联合国系统为代表的国际多边合作方式和内容的延展,从资金合作、技术合作开始走向知识合作。无独有偶,9月,中国农业大学中国南南农业学院在联合国总部召开的全球南南合作智库联盟的智库对话会上发布了“南南合作评估报告”,分享中国-坦桑尼亚南南合作的成果。

 

07.全球农业南南合作高层论坛 推动全球农业南南合作

 

11月,联合国粮农组织和中国农业农村部在湖南长沙联合举办“全球农业南南合作高层论坛”,推动全球农业南南合作。中国始终积极参与全球农业南南合作,是联合国粮农组织南南及三方合作项目的最大的资金提供者和派出专家数量最多的国家。

 

中国曾先后两次向联合国粮农组织捐赠8000万美元建立信托基金,推动全球农业南南合作,目前中国信托基金项目已经在11个国家执行了12个国别项目,派出近300名中国专家和技术员为当地农民和技术人员开展实地示范和培训,同时组织了超过50个来华能力建设培训团组,包括高级官员和专家在内的500余人访问了中国。此次论坛还发布了中国-联合国粮农组织南南合作项目一期评估报告。

 

08.巴新第二十六次APEC峰会 开创中国和太平洋岛国合作新机遇

 

APEC会议 图片来自:路透社

 

11月,习近平主席出席了在巴布亚新几内亚举行了第26次APCE峰会,在峰会期间,再次和8个太平洋建交岛国领导人也举行了集体会晤。中国表示要和太平洋岛国共同推动落实2030年可持续发展议程,支持岛国推进“蓝色太平洋”倡议,将向各岛国在气候变化问题上提供力所能及的帮助,携手推动《巴黎协定》有效实施,促进全球绿色、低碳、可持续发展。

 

中国和太平洋建交岛国之间合作不断深化开始于2014年,当时习近平主席首次访问斐济,并首次与8个太平洋建交岛国领导人举行集体会晤,提升了中国和太平洋岛国之间的关系,拓展了务实合作,尤其是“一带一路”合作倡议提出来后,中国和太平洋岛国地区的基础设施与互联互通建设、海洋开发、环境保护、渔业资源开发利用以及应对气候变化等领域都开展深度合作。

 

09.对外援助管理办法(征求意见稿) 国家国际发展合作署公开征求意见

 

11月,国家国际发展合作署发布《对外援助管理办法(征求意见稿)》,并且向社会各界公开征求意见,征求意见稿共六章四十二条,明确了对外援助的基本概念和主管部门职责,明确了对外援助政策的规划的内容和主要负责机构,明确了中国援助资金的三种类型以及各种类型资金的使用用途和管理规定,明确了项目援助是我国对外援助的主要方式,确定了各级政府机构的管理职能,明确了对外援助的监督和评估以及相关法律责任等。《对外援助管理办法(征求意见稿)》的发布也标志着我国对外援助将朝着更加制度化和规范化发展。

 

10.中国援外医疗队派遣55周年 卫生援外成为中非合作的重要内容

 

中国援外医疗队 图片来自:网络

 

今年是中国援外医疗队派遣55周年,中国在1963年向非洲国家阿尔及利亚派遣了第一支援非医疗队,目前,在非洲的45个国家都有中国医疗队的身影,前后共有2万多医务人员远赴非洲参加援外医疗的工作,55年来共医治了2.2亿的非洲患者。

 

除了派遣医疗队外,目前中国在非洲32个国家有中国援建的医院,已经与埃塞俄比亚、桑给巴尔等15个非洲国家的医院签署了对口医院合作协议,在佛得角、埃塞俄比亚、津巴布韦、塞拉利昂、马拉维、加纳,以及马达加斯加等7国开展妇幼健康示范项目,举行超过30次的“光明行”活动,派出200多眼科专家,为9000多名非洲白内障患者进行手术,卫生援外已经成为中非合作的重要内容。

Translated by Alicia Huang

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