A Chronicle of the Struggle Against Domestic Violence in China (1990-2017)

中文 English
The following content was originally published on the Beijing Qianqian law firm’s WeChat account on March 1, 2018. You can find the original here. What follows is CDB’s translation.

 


 

Editor’s note:

 

On March 1st 2016, the “Anti-Domestic Violence Law of the People’s Republic of China” was officially implemented. The law has been in effect for two years, and a comprehensive evaluation reveals that there have been many gains, but also some deficiencies, and there is a need for further improvements. In the following article, the Qianqian Law Firm in Beijing has collected, arranged and summarized a chronology of the major events in the fight against domestic violence in China. In view of the limited resources available, this list is not exhaustive and may include some inaccuracies. We welcome all those concerned with the issue of domestic violence in China to provide any further information or suggestions to help us improve our chronicle of events. Please contact us by phone: 010-84833270 or email: gongyilvshi@woman-legalaid.org.cn.

We must all work together to put an end to domestic violence.

 

Below is a chronicle of important milestones in the fight against domestic violence in China:

 

1990

 

At meetings like the 1990 Sino-American Symposium on Women and the 1993-1994 World Conference on Women regional forum, domestic violence officially became an academic topic in China.

 

1991

 

In July 1991, the Women of China magazine published the article “White Paper on Domestic Violence” by the Beijing lawyer Pi Xiaoming. The article was the first to publicly suggest that domestic violence is a social problem in China.

 

1992

 

In 1992, the Maple Women’s Psychological Counseling Center Beijing opened the first national women’s hotline, which was also the first national hotline for mental health.

 

1994

 

In 1994, using the UN International Year of the Family as an opportunity, the Maple Women’s Psychological Counseling Center Beijing assembled and published an investigation into 30 cases of domestic violence in Beijing and its surrounding areas. This was the first major case study on domestic violence gathered by an NGO. In 2004, this same organization opened a domestic violence hotline.

In October 1994, the China Association of Social Workers Family Research Center opened the first national domestic violence complaint hotline, providing services to victims of domestic violence.

 

1995

 

On August 7, 1995, the State Council released the “Outline of Women’s Development in China” (1995-2000). This was the Chinese government’s first specialized plan regarding women’s development and it contained the first explicit use of the term “domestic violence”.

From September 4-15, 1995, the Fourth World Conference on Women was held in Beijing. In order to accelerate the implementation of the “Nairobi Strategy”, the “Beijing Declaration” and “Beijing Platform for Action” were drafted, explicitly linking violence against women with basic human rights and freedoms, calling “violence against women the violation, damage and deprivation of the basic human rights and freedoms of women.” The Chinese government pledged to end domestic violence and protect the rights of vulnerable groups such as women, children and the elderly. The issue of domestic violence began to attract broader attention across Chinese society.

In September 1995, a woman entrepreneur in Hubei province opened the first women’s shelter for victims of domestic violence in Mainland China. It closed one year later due to harassment by perpetrators and public pressure.

In December 1995, the first public welfare institution specializing in women’s legal aid, research and advocacy in China was established, the Beijing University Women’s Legal Aid Center. The center has continuously made domestic violence a focal issue of its research and advocacy work, which includes providing free legal consultations, handling individual cases, awareness and skills training, sending lawyers to marginalized communities, implementing test projects and promoting legislation.

 

1996

 

In January 1996, the Office of the Municipal Government of Changsha in Hunan province and the Office of the People’s Government in Changsha issued “Regulations on the Prevention and Suppression of Domestic Violence” which marked the first local implementation of policy against domestic violence and introduced the phrase “domestic violence” into official government documents.

 

1998

 

In June 1998, the Beijing University Women’s Legal Aid Center held a seminar on domestic violence, the first of its kind in China. During the seminar, the center presented a report on 30 unresolved legal cases related to domestic violence, and proposed establishing an organization to promote legislation against domestic violence.

 

1999

 

In 1999, the Changsha Public Security Bureau released comments on the implementation of the “Regulations on the Prevention and Suppression of Domestic Violence”, the first document related to the management of domestic violence issued by a public security office. Since then, all public security offices, from provincial and municipal public security bureaus to community police stations, have released documents detailing actions related to the enforcement of laws on dealing with domestic violence, including reporting, evidence collection and police management. The public security offices have established domestic violence complaint stations, 110 reporting points, domestic violence appraisal centers and developed intervention training for the police.

In April 1999, the Family Violence Prevention Fund in San Francisco designed a program to promote the San Francisco medical system model for domestic violence intervention in four countries, funded by the Ford Foundation and the US Global Women’s Fund. After review, it was determined the program would take place in Beijing and be operated by the Department of Social Work at China Women’s University, and it would be incorporated into the China Law Society’s “Domestic Violence Research and Intervention Program”. It became one of 15 programs, and Tie Ying Hospital in Fengtai District became the pilot hospital for the medical system model of domestic violence intervention. The project was the first to launch a national probe into the establishment of domestic violence intervention mechanisms in medical institutions.

In November 1999, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a resolution to make November 25 “International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women”. The resolution called upon governments, UN agencies and non-governmental organizations to implement the “Beijing Declaration” and the “Beijing Platform for Action”, and raise public awareness on the issue of violence against women.

On December 28, 1999, Beijing University’s Women’s Legal Aid Center, China Women’s University’s Department of Social Work Women’s Counseling and Development Center, Maple Women’s Psychological Counselling Center Beijing and the Shaanxi Women’s Research Institute jointly established the “Working group against domestic violence” seminar in Beijing. Participants suggested that the role of the judiciary and social organizations in the fight against domestic violence be changed, and that there be a more comprehensive use of the multiple functions of the judiciary and social groups in controlling domestic violence, including making full use of their role in deterrence and education. To strengthen the cooperation between different mechanisms and organizations in the fight against domestic violence, they suggested creating a coalition of medical centers, shelters, lawyers, police, courts, women’s groups and mental health organizations to form a “Network Against Domestic Violence”. At the same time the media should guide public opinion through reports of well-handled domestic abuse cases and always uphold the rights of the victims.

 

2000

 

On March 31, 2000, the Standing Committee of Hunan province placed the “Resolution on the Prevention and Suppression of Domestic Violence” under review. This was the first proposed local law against domestic violence in China, and marked the first appearance of the term “domestic violence” within the Chinese legal system.

In April 2000, the Women’s Federation of Xi’an and the Xi’an Women’s Marriage and Family Research Institute implemented special training in domestic violence intervention for the Yanta district police force, setting a precedent for the creation of a Women’s Federation and NGO skills training program in domestic violence intervention for public security departments.

In June 2000, the China Law Society Domestic Violence Network and Research Center was created. The network brought together academics from a range of disciplines including law, sociology, women’s studies, social work, medicine, journalism and psychology, as well as women workers and activists in the public and private sectors, law enforcement and legislation. The mission of the network was to focus on the issue of domestic violence from the perspective of gender and human rights, and gather members from across various regions to carry out a joint campaign against domestic violence. As part of the “Domestic Violence Research and Intervention Program”, the network established 15 new programs including: the Domestic Violence Information Center; a domestic violence website; a gender awareness training program; investigative research into actions against domestic violence, legal intervention and case studies from the counselling hotline; media and public awareness campaigns; an oral history of women victims; a series of training materials; a legal fund for women; and seminars in domestic violence intervention for urban communities, rural communities and medical institutions from both the national and international perspectives. The network began to build a unique model to battle domestic violence that could be promoted nationwide using institutional intervention research, legislative proposals and gender-based awareness training and enlisting institutional cooperation, community intervention, the support of women victims, social assistance, the participation of men and medical and judicial reform. At the same time, the “Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence (draft)”, “Judicial Interpretations of Protection against Bodily Harm”, “Regulations on Police Domestic Violence Intervention” and other legislation was proposed. These policy suggestions were unique and highly effective contributions to the fight against domestic violence.

On November 2, 2000, China Women’s News published the article “The Struggle Against Despair: the theory and practice of battered women’s syndrome”, which introduced the concept of battered women’s syndrome to the public. In legal terms, this concept refers to a pattern of behavior enacted by women who have endured long-term abuse from husbands or boyfriends, including concepts such as “cycles of violence” and “learned helplessness”.

 

2001

 

The famous play that speaks out against domestic violence, “The Vagina Monologues”, was performed in English in 2001 in Nanjing and 2002 in Shanghai, and in Chinese at Zhongshan University from 2003 to 2009. Performances were also staged in Fudan, Beijing University, Huazhong Normal University and Xiamen University by university students, in Nanning high school students and by a special acting troupe. “The Vagina Monologues” provides a deep analysis of domestic violence and violence against women and disseminates this message widely through artistic means. The rehearsal, performance, viewing and discussion of the play works to raise awareness, mobilize action and eliminate violence and provides a positive influence for young people.

On February 22, 2001, a White Ribbon media campaign was held in Beijing with the slogan “The fight against domestic violence is the responsibility of all society.”

On April 28, 2001, an amendment to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China was passed, explicitly prohibiting domestic violence, with regulations regarding assistance for victims and the legal liability of perpetrators. This marks the first time domestic violence was addressed through national legislation.

In May 2001, Furong district in Changsha, Hunan province pioneered the creation of a “Zero-tolerance community”, with the stated purpose of “an intervention rate of 100% and zero blindness towards domestic violence.” They created a “Network in Defense of the Seven Rights”, established specific indicators for assessment mechanisms and targets, and explored the establishment of socialized and systematized mechanisms of prevention.

In October 2001, “Don’t Talk to Strangers” was aired, the first television series to address the subject of domestic violence.

On December 10, 2001, in honor of International Human Rights Day and “16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence” (November 25 to December 10), the United Nations Rule of Law Group joined with the Women’s Media Monitoring Network to hold “White Ribbon Campaign” activities in Beijing. The participants included international organizations, governmental departments, NGO representatives, Chinese and foreign media and students. According to questionnaire results, many participants reported hearing about the “White Ribbon Campaign” for the first time, and 80% said that they had been deeply affected by what they had learned about domestic violence.

On December 25, 2001, the Supreme People’s Court published “The Supreme People’s Court’s Interpretations of the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China (i)”, which defined domestic violence as: behavior which causes harm such as beatings, binding, injury or forcible restriction of personal freedom through other means perpetrated against the body or mind of family members.

 

2002 

 

In June 2002, the Procuratorate of Anshan City, Liaoning province, established the first women’s public prosecution group in China, focusing on handling such cases as those in which women and children were victims, or those where women were the suspected criminals. Since then, procuratorates in other regions such as Beijing, Hebei, Henan and Shaanxi have also set up similar mechanisms.

On October 14, 2002, lawyers attending a training session for core lawyers of the Hebei Women’s Legal Service (Aid) Organization took the lead in launching the “White Silk” campaign, a written petition which emphasized: “in acting as lawyers, especially as male lawyers, we are responsible for urging men to stand up and oppose domestic violence against women”, and proposed a promise to all the lawyers in the province and to every man: 1. “At whatever time, in whatever circumstances, never to carry out domestic violence”, 2. “To actively participate in guarding against and putting a stop to actions of domestic violence”, 3. “To extend a helping hand to women who are sufferers of domestic violence”. In the same year, the first domestic “Group of Male Volunteers Opposing Violence Against Women and Promoting Gender Equality in Society” was set up in the capital; afterwards, in Leqing City in Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, the “Men Against Domestic Violence Volunteer Group”, the “Men in Changsha City Active Against Domestic Violence Group”, and the “Beijing Therapists against Domestic Violence Participation Group” were all set up in quick succession. The young people attending the annual opening ceremony of the 16-day Elimination of Domestic Violence Against Women program were also getting more numerous and more varied by the year, including both men and women from all social backgrounds.

 

2003

 

In March 2003, the website China Law Society for Opposing Domestic Violence submitted its first “Prevention of Domestic Violence Act” (Proposal Draft). In 2006 the website re-established a group of experts to revise it, and it underwent three rounds of specialised investigation and research, six rounds of specialist discussion and seven draft papers, until the 2003 proposal progressed to a completely revised stage. In March 2010 it was presented again to the National People’s Congress.

In 2003 the Comprehensive Management Committee of Hunan province took the national lead and entered the task of prevention and curbing of domestic violence into the content for evaluation by the Provincial Committee for Comprehensive Management of Public Security. This constituted one point within the “mass evaluation”.

On June 12, 2003, the Xuzhou City Civil Administration Bureau and the city’s Women’s Federation set up the Xuzhou Domestic Violence Asylum Centre, demonstrating how Civil Affairs’ departments can be a channel for social welfare.

In December 2003, the People’s Court of Yuhua District of Shijiazhuang City in Hebei province set up the first “Tribunal Against Domestic Violence” in the country.

At the end of 2003, the Prosecutor’s Office in Beijing’s Haidian district launched the “Prevention and Control of Domestic Violence” program. This was the first time one of China’s basic-level procuratorates launched a program relating to the opposition of domestic violence.

 

2004

 

On July 22, 2004, the Standing Committee of the Hebei Provincial People’s Congress issued the “Hebei Regulation on the Prevention and Curbing of Domestic Violence”. This was the first local legislation specifically on domestic violence brought out in the form of a regulation.

According to an authoritative investigation by a relevant department, it was found that domestic violence occurred at a rate of between 29.7% and 35.7% in China (not including hidden figures from the investigation). More than 90% of the victims were women. Out of China’s 270 million households, in around 30% of them (nearly 81 million households) domestic violence could be found in various degrees. Nine-tenths of the perpetrators were men. Every year there were 100,000 households that disintegrated because of domestic violence.

 

2005

 

In 2005, “The Task of Preventing and Stopping Domestic Violence” was defined as an important means of evaluation for “Safe Changsha” and the establishment of a “national civilized city”.

On February 28, 2005, China Central Television (CCTV) broadcast “News Investigation – an Investigation of Women’s Prison Wards”. CCTV’s “News Investigation” program team went into a female prison in Shijiazhuang, and made close contact with a group of female offenders who had received heavy sentences for murdering their husbands after suffering from domestic violence. This caused a sensation in society, and triggered many people from all backgrounds to engage in a wide-ranging debate and profound reflection on cases of violent reaction against abuse, and whether they should receive lighter sentences or be decriminalized. It also became a classic audio-visual material for various kinds of anti-domestic violence training sessions.

On August 28, 2005, the Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women (Revised Draft) provided that “it is forbidden to carry out domestic violence against women” and “the state shall take up measures to prevent and put a stop to domestic violence”, and set out the responsibilities for every mechanism of prevention of domestic violence. On top of this, every province (and district and city accordingly) amended their Measures to Implement the “Law on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women”, all issuing special guidelines for the prevention and curbing of domestic violence.

 

2006

 

On December 29, 2006, the National People’s Congress amended the Law on the Protection of Minors, and made definite a provision that stated the following: “it is prohibited to carry out domestic violence against a minor”.

 

2007

 

Devoting all their efforts to diversifying gender equality, from 2007 to 2009 the non-profit association “Common Language” developed the “Investigation into the Circumstances of Domestic Violence against Lesbians (and bisexuals) and the Manual against Violence” program in the eight cities of Beijing, Shanghai, Anshan, Chengdu, Kunming, Nanning, Zhuhai and Guangzhou. The statistics gathered from 428 on-site questionnaires and 472 online questionnaires showed that lesbians (and bisexuals) suffered domestic violence on average at a rate of 38.47%, far higher than the rate of 24.7% published by the third national investigation into the position of women in society. Of these, 48.2% suffered from violence coming from parents and relatives, 42.2% suffered from their same-sex partner, and 25% suffered violence coming from their former or current partner of the opposite sex; the kinds of violence suffered were physical attacks, sustained abuse, psychological abuse (including being declared mentally ill or forced to take treatment), stalking and sexual assaults. “Openly intimidating tendencies” were a particular characteristic of homosexual partners’ domestic violence.

On February 13, 2007, the final ruling in the case of Mrs Liu from Changsha city, Hunan province, who used violence to stop domestic violence and killed her husband, was overruled by the Hunan Higher People’s Court. Her fixed term of three years was suspended for four years, and later the case was selected for final judgement by the Supreme People’s Court in the second “Selection of cases for the People’s Court” (Criminal Affairs Collection), and was selected by the Hunan Higher People’s Court for the “Selection of Cases for Hunan Court” (Second Collection). It was of great significance for a court at the lowest level to try a case brought about by domestic violence.

 

2008

 

In 2008, many non-governmental agencies and organisations jointly launched a “16 days” action opposing domestic violence against women. First of all they trained, coordinated, and created publicity materials together. Then from November 25 to December 10, during the “16 days” activity, a diverse range of anti-domestic violence publicity and education activities were carried out across the country. In 2009, there was an even wider participation in the “16 days” activity. The prominent achievements of this joint activity pushed various organisations and universities to take part. Especially the active participation of young people made the event much more rich and colourful; at the same time, by connecting with the issues of domestic violence and extensive sexual discrimination, including violence against women, and even cultural oppression and inequality, it demonstrated the potential to further intensify publicity and educational activities.

In March 2008, the Supreme People’s Court Institute of Applied Chinese Law published the “Guidebook for Hearing Marriage Cases involving Domestic Violence”. This was the first consultative guidance document for judicial trials in the country involving domestic violence cases.

In May 2008, The Supreme People’s Court Institute of Applied Chinese Law appointed nine volunteer grassroots People’s Courts to carry out the “Guidebook for Hearing Marriage Cases Involving Domestic Violence” pilot scheme, issuing Personal Safety Protective Orders in light of domestic violence. These nine pilot courts included the People’s Courts of Chong’an district of Wuxi city, Jiangsu province; Yuelu district of Changsha city, Hunan province; Yuzhong district of Chongqing municipality; Nanshan district of Baoding city, Hebei province; Longwan district of Wenzhou city, Jiangsu province; Chengxiang district of Putian city, Fujian province; Chongwen district of Beijing; Haidian district of Beijing; and Dongcheng district of Beijing.

In July 2008, the seven ministries and commissions of the National Women’s Federation, the Central Propaganda Department, the Supreme People’s Court, the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of Civil Affairs, the Ministry of Justice, and the Ministry of Health jointly published “Several Opinions on Preventing and Curbing Domestic Violence”. This was China’s first specialist regulatory document on domestic violence. It set out more precise guidelines for the definition of domestic violence, and for the responsibilities of the public security departments, people’s procuratorate, judicial and administrative departments, health departments, civil affairs departments, propaganda departments and women’s federations in their work against domestic violence.

From the beginning of 2008, the National Women’s Federation raised the “Proposal to Include Anti-Domestic Violence Law in the Plan for Legislation by the National People’s Congress” six times, both through the Delegates’ Committee and independently, in the National People’s Congress and Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference.

On August 6, 2008, the People’s Court in Chong’an district of Wuxi City, Jiangsu province, took the brave step of issuing China’s first Personal Safety Protective Order in the field of domestic violence。

By 2008, in the whole country there were 29 provinces (and districts and cities) which had drawn up local anti-domestic violence legislation and policies.

 

2009

 

In dealing with the connected issues of intimacy and violence, the Changchun City Regulations for the Prevention and Curbing of Domestic Violence and the Zhejiang Province Regulations for the Prevention and Curbing of Domestic Violence (2011) both treated violence within homosexual cohabiting couples as a form of domestic violence, and included it in a category requiring intervention, providing that “these regulations include ‘household members’, referring to partners, parents, sons and daughters and other people cohabiting who make up the household”.

On April 15, 2009, the Hunan Province Higher People’s Court officially published the Guiding Opinion on Strengthening Judicial Protection of Female Victims of Domestic Violence (Pilot). This was the first systematic document on the hearing of domestic violence cases formulated by a provincial-level court in China. It contained provisions on “rules for evidence”, “personal safety protective orders”, and “lenient sentencing and reduced punishment for cases where violence was used as a reaction to violence”, and it was a significant breakthrough in building a system of judicial protection against domestic violence.

On May 12, 2009, the People’s Court in Xiangzhou district of Zhuhai city, Guangdong province, granted a personal safety protective order. It was the first time a provision was made stating that as long as the ruling was effective, no party could dispose of a married couple’s property (if it is of a relatively high value) without permission. This was the first personal safety protective order involving protection of property in China.

By September 2009, the Civil Affairs department had set up domestic violence asylum centres in the aid-management stations of about 60 cities nationally, throughout nearly 20 provinces (and autonomous regions and municipalities), while asylum shelters promoted and set up by NGOs were also being developed.

On October 19, 2009, young Beijing woman Mrs. Dong was brutally beaten with fatal consequences by her husband, Mr. Wang, after only 308 days of marriage. The first instance and second instance courts both sentenced the defendant Mr. Wang to a term of six years and six months of imprisonment on a charge of abuse. The Peking University Law School Research and Services for Women’s Law Centre covered the lawyers’ fees, and the case attracted much attention from experts, media and the public. The case had a continuing and profound effect on society. On the one hand it pushed scholars, legal professionals, civic groups, public opinion and related government departments to focus and reflect deeply on all aspects of domestic violence, and on the other hand it later turned into a model case which was re-evaluated and discussed in anti-domestic violence training and discussion forums convened at all levels. Mrs. Dong’s short life was thus turned into a moving and tragic composition on the fight against domestic violence.

 

2010

 

On April 10, 2010, the Chongqing Youyang County People’s court issued the country’s first Personal Safety Protection Order against domestic violence following a divorce.

On May 27, 2010, the political and legal affairs committee of the Changsha municipal party committee, Hunan Province, published the paper “Views on furthering the judicial enforcement on the prevention and suppression of domestic violence”, strengthening the cooperation between the legal and political departments, clarifying the practice of “Personal Protection civil adjudication” in the court system and refining the requirements of the public security organs in implementing assistance. This was the first document in the country created by a municipal-level political and legal committee that regulates judicial law enforcement against domestic violence, and the first structure to prevent and suppress domestic violence to be established in the country through the cooperation of different agencies.

On June 1, 2010, the Changsha Yuelu People’s court in Hunan province issued the country’s first case ruling for the protection of male victims.

On August 16, 2010, the Changsha Intermediate People’s Court in Hunan province issued the first ruling on a case of Personal Safety Protection by an Intermediate People’s Court.

On November 3, 2010, in Anyue county, Sichuan, a woman, Ms. Li, violently killed her husband as a reaction against domestic violence. In the first and second court trials, with complete disregard for the circumstances of domestic violence, the accused woman was sentenced to death for intentional homicide, with the sentence to be carried out (1). The case immediately aroused the strong attention of the domestic and international media and the strong response of the public, with everyone appealing to the Supreme People’s Court to spare the woman. Thanks to the active work of aid lawyers and a public appeal from all the sectors of society concerned with women’s rights and domestic violence, the Supreme People’s Court carefully reviewed the factual evidence of the case and ruled that the death penalty should not be approved. On April 24, 2015, the High People’s Court of Sichuan province brought the case to a retrial, during which the court ruled that “due to the evidence proving that in the course of the marriage the victim repeatedly beat and scolded Li, there is a certain error in the cause of the case, Li has truthfully stated the facts of the crime, the death penalty cannot be implemented immediately”. Li’s death sentence on the basis of intentional homicide was eventually suspended for two years (2). After receiving the verdict, Li did not appeal, but through her defence counsel submitted her personal amendments to the “Anti-Domestic Violence Act (draft)” to the National People’s Congress Law Council. The case was named one of the top ten news events concerning gender equality in 2015 and was selected as one of 30 candidates for the ten most influential litigation cases in China in 2015.

On November 5, 2010, the Ankang Hanbing District People’s court in Shaanxi province issued the country’s first Personal Protection ruling prohibiting the abuse of the elderly.

 

2011

 

On April 14, 2011, the Liuyang People’s Court in Hunan Province issued the country’s first Personal Safety Protection order for the protection of young girls.

On June 17, 2011, the United Nations Human Rights Council voted to adopt a human rights resolution on sexual orientation and gender identity, the first time in the history of the United Nations that a resolution has been passed concerning the problem of violence and discrimination towards homosexuals, bisexuals and transgender people around the world. It also urged the High Commissioner for Human Rights to organise, by the end of 2011, relevant thematic surveys on a global scale to collect records from each country of discriminatory laws and violence in connection with sexual orientation and gender identity, and at the same time examine how to address relevant human rights violations within the legal framework of the United Nations and international conventions. In the past, the Chinese Government had voted against on this sort of issue; now for the first time they abstained from voting, something which could be seen as an improvement in our understanding of the issues surrounding sexuality. This is not unrelated to the unremitting efforts of Chinese civil society organisations, which actively organized activities every year on May 17th, “International Day Against Homophobia, Transphobia and Biphobia”, December 17th, “International Day to End Violence Against Sex Workers“, November 25th, “International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women” and November 16th against gender-based violence, advocating for the equality of diverse genders and opposing violence against sexual minorities.

In July 2011, the National People’s Congress Standing Committee incorporated the Anti-Domestic Violence Law into the preparatory legislation project, and began to carry out legislative research and proof work.

At the end of August 2011 the American wife of Li Yang, the founder of Crazy English, publicly exposed Li Yang’s domestic violence against her on Weibo, and published several photos as evidence of a heated argument. On February 3, 2013, the “Li Yang domestic violence” divorce case, which lasted for more than a year, was concluded. Beijing Chaoyang District People’s court found that Li Yang’s domestic violence was an established behaviour, and allowed Li Yang and his wife Kim to divorce. Kim was given custody of their three daughters, with Li Yang ordered to pay child support of RMB 100,000 for each daughter every year until the age of 18. Li Yang was also ordered to pay RMB 50,000 in compensation for the psychological damage, and property compensation of RMB 12,000,000. Before the divorce case was pronounced, based on Kim’s application for a Personal Safety Protection ruling, the court prohibited Li Yang from beating or threatening Kim, ruling that if Li Yang came in violation of the above prohibition he would be punished by the court according to the severity of the circumstances, subject to fines, detention, or criminal responsibility. This was the first “Personal Safety Protection order” issued by the Beijing Municipal court system since the implementation of this new “Civil Procedure Law”. Once the ruling was pronounced, receiving widespread approval in society, the “Democratic Legal Times”, sponsored by the Chinese Law Association, called the case “a classic case of divorce involving domestic violence, as a result of the Court’s respect for facts and laws and innovative judgments”. The New Yorker, a magazine renowned for its long and deep reports, also wrote that the case was “a landmark legal case concerning domestic violence in China”, arguing that the court’s ruling had far-reaching implications for China’s anti-domestic violence legislation.

In October 2011 the results of the third phase of the survey on Chinese women’s social standing, jointly organised by the China Women’s Federation and the National Bureau of Statistics, were released: 24.7% of women had suffered from spousal abuse, beatings, restrictions on personal freedom, economic control, forced sexual activity and other forms of domestic violence throughout their marriage; out of those, 5.5% clearly indicated being beaten by a spouse, with percentages in rural and urban areas standing at 7.8% and 3.1% respectively.

 

2012

 

On February 22, 2012, the Zhuhai Xiangzhou District People’s court in Guangdong province issued the country’s first anti-domestic violence “restraining order.”

On August 31, 2012, larger revisions were made to the revised “Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China” on the system of litigation preservation: in addition to the original preservation of property, the content was extended to include “preservation of conduct” in order to provide a direct and clear legal basis for the implementation of Personal Safety Protection orders against domestic violence.

In September 2012, the Huangpu District People’s Court in Guangdong Province issued the country’s first cohabiting relationship Personal Safety Protection order.

 

2013

 

In 2013, Hunan Province started work on a “multi-agency cooperation to identify and intervene in cases of domestic violence”, and systematically designed and established mechanisms for multi-agency cooperation, risk assessment and joint conferences. For petition cases, a “risk assessment scale of domestic violence cases” was implemented to carry out risk assessment classification for individual cases of domestic violence. For high-risk cases, women’s federations at all levels were called upon to immediately start a multisector cooperative intervention mechanism to convene a joint conference to discuss high-risk case. Members of staff working in the community, public security, prosecution, courts, mediation, legal aid, medical services, civil affairs, education and other areas were called upon to individually report on situations involving victims, risk assessment, handling and intervention and cries for help, to clearly refine and distinguish responsibilities for the intervention towards perpetrators, victims of violence and witnesses, and to inform on the progress of cases through information platforms. For middle and low-risk cases, individual levels would be handled via consultation, psychological counselling and expert mediation, either through self-processing or referral treatment. The pilot for the joint conference system was carried out in the Xiangtan district of Changsha. By 2015, it had spread to 14 cities across the whole province and was incorporated into the provincial Pingan comprehensive family treatment assessment.

On April 9, 2013, the Hunan Provincial Public Security bureau issued the “working regulations for the Hunan Province public security organs to deal with domestic violence cases”, clarifying the working principles, responsibilities and procedures of the public security organs dealing with cases of domestic violence, and emphasizing risk assessment, being victim-oriented and treating mediation as the priority. These were the country’s first standardised documents to be issued by a provincial public security organ concerning the police handling of domestic violence cases.

On July 1, 2013, Suzhou city in Jiangsu Province formally implemented the “Suzhou Domestic Violence Warning Measures”; this was the country’s first standardised document on domestic violence warnings.

In July 2013, on the basis of a number of pilot schemes, the Jiangsu provincial High People’s Court, the provincial Procuratorate, the provincial Public Security Bureau and the provincial Women’s Federation issued the “Jiangsu Province Domestic Violence Warning System implementation measures (trial)”; the “measures” also stipulated that “acts of violence between persons having a cohabiting relationship or having once had a spousal relationship may be dealt with in light of these measures. In October of the same year, the Ningxia Hui People’s Autonomous Region Public Security Bureau, the High People’s Court, the Procuratorate and the Autonomous Region Women’s Federation formulated the “Ningxia Hui People’s Autonomous Region Domestic Violence warning system implementation measures”. Wenzhou city in Zhejiang Province also enacted a warning system.

On November 12, 2013, the Beijing Second Intermediate People’s Court gave the final verdict in the divorce case of CCTV sports channel host Chai and his wife Xiao Jie, declaring that a certain amount of violence and threats of violence had been brought against his wife Xiao Jie in the course of family life. Xiao Jie was given custody of their one-year old son. For more than two years after the verdict came into effect, Chai refused to hand over the child to his ex-wife, Xiao Jie. After media exposure of the case aroused strong public indignation, the Executive Court of Beijing’s Chaoyang District People’s Court also attached great importance to the case. The court tribunal directly intervened, and under the double pressure of law and public opinion, Chai finally handed over the child to his ex-wife Xiao Jie. The success of this case indicates that the implementation of identity relationship cases involving custody rights, visitation rights and other such rights is, although difficult, not an entirely unresolvable situation and depends to a large extent on the degree and means of the implementation of the Court.

In 2013, the 12th National Party Congress Standing Committee formally incorporated the “Law on Domestic Violence” into the five-year legislative plan. Subsequently, the National Women’s Federation drafted a series of legislative proposals.

 

2014

 

On February 27, 2014, the Supreme People’s Court held a press conference to announce that in recent years the People’s Court had conducted judicial interventions into relevant situations of domestic violence to protect the rights of women, children and the elderly. The media spokesperson pointed out that, according to the Supreme Court of Statistics, cases of intentional homicide involving domestic violence accounted for nearly 10% of all intentional homicide cases.

On May 5, 2014, the Beijing Haidian District People’s Court issued a survey report on domestic violence. The report shows that since 2011 (up until early May 2014), the number of divorce cases heard by the Haidian District People’s Court involving domestic violence had risen every year, but the proportion of approvals had remained lower than 8%. The low approval rate in cases of domestic violence may be due to the fact that, compared to bodily harm, sexual violence and economic control are more covert means of domestic violence, and since there is no “objective” evidence the court is often unable to accept the testimony.

In June 2014, in Xuzhou city in Jiangsu Province, a case was brought against a man surnamed Shao concerning the rape and indecent assault of his 10-year-old daughter Xiao Ling. In October of that year, Shao was convicted and sentenced to 11 years’ imprisonment by the People’s Court. Xiao Ling’s mother Wang had failed in her duty of care for more than 8 years, and for more than half a year after the sexual assault case remained indifferent, displaying substantial abandonment behaviour. Xiao Ling’s paternal grandparents had died many years earlier, her maternal grandmother and other relatives made it clear that they were unwilling to foster her, and so Xiao Ling was temporarily raised by the warm-hearted villager Ms. Zhang. On January 7th, 2015, Xuzhou Tongshan District Civil Affairs Bureau appealed to the Tongshan People’s Court to revoke the guardian status of Xiao Ling’s parents Shao and Wang, and to appoint an alternative guardian. On February 4th, 2015, the Tongshan People’s Court employed the special procedures reserved for civil litigation, the case was brought to trial and a final judgement made in the first hearing: the legal guardianship of Xiao Ling’s parents Shao and Wang was revoked and the Tongshan District Civil Affairs Bureau was designated guardian of Xiao Ling. The case was the first time a Civil Affairs Department had applied for the revocation of guardianship, and also the country’s first case to make use of “Opinions on several issues regarding dealing with guardian violation of minors’ rights and interests according to law”, jointly published by the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security and the Ministry of Civil Affairs, and implemented on January 1st, 2015.

On November 5, 2014, the Maanshan Intermediate People’s Court of Anhui Province heard a criminal case of a woman accused of violently killing her husband due to domestic violence. During the trial, the system of expert witnesses appearing in court was tried out; expert on domestic violence issues Chen Min, Director of the Gender and Law Research Center at the Supreme People’s Court of China Institute of Applied Law, attended the trial to elaborate on the characteristics and patterns of domestic violence and the relationship between the violent experiences of the victims and their eventual violent reaction. This case was the first of its kind in the country.

In November 2014, the Xuzhou Jiawang District People’s court in Jiangsu Province set up the national court system’s first anti-domestic violence temporary shelter, to provide emergency shelter for those who have been temporarily unable to file a lawsuit or whose personal safety may be at risk after sentencing.

On November 25th, 2014, the Legal Office of the State Council publicly released the “People’s Republic of China Anti-Domestic Violence Law (draft to solicit opinions)” in order to solicit feedback from the public.

In December 2014, the Beijing institution for the rights and interests of sexual minorities “Tong Yu” published the “Chinese Sexual Minorities Domestic Violence Research Report”. The report surveyed 419 respondents in eight cities in China, and out of the 419 cases surveyed, the proportion of lesbian/bisexual persons who had been subjected to domestic violence was 68.97%, with the highest percentage of violence (49.16%) coming from their own family of origin, followed by 42.64% of the violence occurring between same-sex couples. With regards to the type of violence, psychological abuse was the main form of violence: psychological abuse from the family of origin was experienced by 46.3%, and psychological abuse between same-sex couples stood at 40.63%. At the same time, the survey found that sexual orientation was one of the factors that affected the differences in types of violence compared to other groups.

 

2015
On March 2, 2015, the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate , the Public Security Bureau and the Ministry of Justice jointly issued “Views Regarding Managing Criminal Cases Pertaining to Domestic Violence According to the Law”, the first criminal law guiding document concerning domestic violence to be released in China.

On August 24, 2015, “the People’s Republic of China’s Anti-Domestic Violence Law (Draft)” was put forward by the State Council for preliminary review by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, with public feedback sought the following month.

At the end of 2015, a variety of gender equality non-profit organizations collectively released China’s first national online investigative report on violence between intimate partners. Through interviews with 3334 participants – including 877 non-heterosexual individuals – concerning serious psychological violence, the authors of the report found that compared with the heterosexual community, gay/lesbian or bisexual individuals were more likely to have experienced or inflicted psychological violence in intimate relationships than their heterosexual peers. The proportion of bisexuals who reported experiencing serious psychological violence (25.7%) was higher than that of both gay/lesbians and (21.8%) and heterosexuals (18.2%). This report also recorded a number of cases of domestic violence occurring within same-sex relationships.

On November 27, 2015, on the third day following the implementation of the domestic violence warning system, the city of Changsha issued Hunan Province’s first domestic violence written reprimand. In January 2016, in regard to the same domestic violence case, Changsha’s courts and Public Security Bureau released in succession a protection order and a warning order, which were upheld as “the nation’s first anti-domestic violence case”.

On December 27, 2015, following a second review, the 18th meeting of the Standing Committee of the 12th National People’s Congress passed “The People’s Republic of China Anti-Domestic Violence Law”. In addition to physical violence, the “Anti-Domestic Violence Law” covered both psychological violence and violence at the hands of co-occupants.

 

2016

 

On March 1, 2016, “The People’s Republic of China’s Anti-Domestic Violence Law” was formally put into effect, representing an important step forward in the work of combating domestic violence in China. On the same day, the city of Beijing and the provinces of Hunan, Fujian, Zhejiang and Shandong each issued the first personal safety protection orders for their own areas. In close succession, the provinces of Sichuan, Tianjin, Henan, Hainan and Shaanxi and the municipality of Shanghai also signed the first personal safety protection orders for their respective areas.

On the same day that the law took effect, on March 1, the Changsha Women’s Federation in Hunan Province submitted a personal safety protection order to the Yuelu District People’s Court on behalf of a victim of domestic violence, a move which received the support of the court. This was both the first independent personal safety order to be issued in Hunan Province and the first personal safety protection order in China to be applied for by the All-China Women’s Federation.

On April 6, 2016, female journalist Hang Jinqi was beaten to death by her husband Jin Zhuou, in the city of Ordos in Inner Mongolia. Following two trials, the courts found Jin Zhuou guilty of committing malicious injury and sentenced him to death with a two year reprieve. This sentence was compared with a vastly different verdict rendered in a similar case seven years prior in Beijing, in which the defendant Wang Guangyu was sentenced by the court to a fixed sentence of six years and six months for the crime of abusing his wife Dong Shanshan, after he beat her to death.

On May 11, 2016, Yuelu District in Changsha, Hunan Province issued a document entitled “Methods Concerning the Compulsory Reporting and Handling of Instances of Domestic Violence Experienced by Minors in Yuelu District, Changsha”. These “Methods” were China’s first local policies establishing a compulsory reporting system for cases of domestic violence.

In June 2016, the Dongcheng District People’s Court in Beijing signed the nation’s first cross-regional domestic violence personal safety protection order.

On July 13, 2016, “The Supreme People’s Court’s Reply Regarding Procedural Issues Related to Personal Safety Protection Order Cases” was officially put into force. The document made clear that those applying for a personal safety protection order are not required to pay any fees for bringing forth a lawsuit, nor are they required to provide a guarantee. According to the special procedures covering the conduct of these legal hearings, applications for the reconsideration of a lawsuit can be conducted by the original court or by another designated court.

On November 1, 2016, the Third Intermediate People’s Court of Beijing convened a briefing concerning second instance marital and family civil cases tried and closed by Beijing’s intermediate courts between January 2014 and July 2016. Combing through these cases revealed that while 213 of them were brought forward by parties alleging having experienced domestic violence, in only 22 (10.3%) of the cases did the court agree that they constituted instances of domestic violence. In 73 of the cases plaintiffs asked for compensation for harm suffered due to domestic violence, but in only 17 (23%) did the court adjudicate in favour of their demands. Furthermore, total compensation in most of these cases equalled fifty thousand RMB or less. Out of those 76 cases in which a victim of domestic violence was also responsible for the care of a minor, the court adjudicated in their favour in 34 (44.7%) of these cases.

From March 1 to the end of December 2016, Chinese courts issued 680 personal safety protection orders.

 

2017

 

On March 1, 2017, “The People’s Republic of China’s Anti-Domestic Violence Law” celebrated its first anniversary. According to incomplete statistics, twenty-four provinces, autonomous regions or directly controlled municipalities across the country had by this point put forward 240 systems and documents supporting the “Anti-Domestic Violence Law”. Covering numerous government departments including Public Security, the courts, the Civil Affairs Department, the Ministry of Education and the All-China Women’s Federation, these supplementary documents and systems aimed to combat domestic violence through work principles, specifying the duties and division of work among departments, and implementing compulsory reporting systems, warning systems and personal safety protection order systems. However, at the grassroots level the overall implementation of the “Anti-Domestic Violence Law” has been mixed: many areas still need to further strengthen and clarify the law, while related supplementary systems are in need of timely improvements.

On July 19, 2017, the Supreme People’s Court, along with 15 government departments, jointly convened a meeting on family matter trials and related work mechanism reforms. At the meeting, the Supreme People’s Court noted that between March 1st 2016 and the end of June 2017, 1284 personal safety protection orders had been issued by courts nationwide.

Up to July 2017, twenty four provinces, autonomous regions and directly controlled municipalities had implemented 247 regulations and policy documents supplementing the “Anti-Domestic Violence Law”.

On October 1st 2017, the newly revised “Changchun Municipal Regulations on the Prevention and Stopping of Domestic Violence” were formally implemented, so that Changchun became the first city in China to legislate improvements to the “Anti-Domestic Violence Law”. These regulations further clarified that the law’s references to “family members as well as other people cohabiting” means that “violent acts committed by guardians, providers, cohabitants or others who live together should be administered according to these regulations.”

On September 12th, 2017, the Shaanxi Province newspaper Chenggu Bulletin published a news report entitled “Daughter-in-law suffers domestic violence at the hands of husband and mother-in-law, dies of injuries at home”. This case was unique not only due to its brutality, but also because the perpetrators were the victim’s husband and her mother-in-law; the victim died not at the hands of a single perpetrator, but due to the collective violence of an entire family.

On November 23rd, 2017, the Beijing LGBT Centre issued their “2017 Investigative Report on the Living Situation of China’s Transgender Community”. Out of the 1640 individuals living with parental guardians who were interviewed, only six had not experienced violence at the hands of members of their family of origin. The probability of trans women suffering violence at the hands of members of their family of origin was even greater, and the proportion of trans women experiencing frequent and extreme forms of violence was greatest.

On November 28th, 2017, Equality, a Beijing-based anti-domestic violence NGO, released their report “How Far We’ve Come in 20 Months: Implementation Monitoring Report on the People’s Republic of China’s Anti-Domestic Violence Law” (covering the period between March 1st, 2016 and October 31, 2017). The implementation monitoring report provided exhaustive statistical analysis of the grassroots implementation of the “Anti-Domestic Violence Law” over the preceding twenty months, covering all aspects related to the prevention of domestic violence. The report concluded that over the previous twenty months, and especially since March 1st, 2017, the promotion of the “Anti-Domestic Violence Law” had gained strength: more and more victims had sought help and bravely spoken out about their experiences; more and more parents and friends had actively supported their relatives in defending their rights; more and more passers-by, neighbours, classmates, coworkers and strangers who had witnessed acts of violence had been willing to call the police, seek help or extend a hand to those in need; more and more organizations had begun implementing anti-domestic violence educational campaigns and provide related services; more and more public rights organizations had issued positive responses to the law. However, significant discrepancies between the law and its implementation remain and continue to negatively influence both the public’s ability to enjoy their legal rights and their expectations of the legal system. This is especially the case with women and children who are victims of domestic violence, including women and children who have been affected by HIV/AIDS, are disabled or are sexual minorities. Of particular concern among the statistics listed in the monitoring report is that during the twenty-month period between March 1st, 2016 and October 31st, 2017, there were 533 cases of domestic violence leading to death reported by the Chinese media, with 635 adults and children killed, including neighbours and passersby, for an average of more than one death per day. The majority of those killed were women.

 

2018

 

As of March 1st, 2018, the “Anti-Domestic Law” has been in effect for two years.

 

 


 

Translator’s Notes:

1) as opposed to a “suspended death sentence”, a common form of sentencing in China

2) after which it can be commuted to life imprisonment

中国反家庭暴力大事记梳理(1990年-2017年)

 2018-03-01 北京市千千律师所 北京市千千律师事务所

小编注:

2016年3月1日,《中华人民共和国反家庭暴力法》正式施行,截至2018年3月1日,该法在基层贯彻落实刚好满两年,综合来看,既有不少收获,也存在一些不足,需要进一步改进和完善。

由北京市千千律师事务所搜集、整理、归纳的“中国反家庭暴力大事记”基本收录了中国反家庭暴力过程中相关时间节点上的重大事件,但鉴于所掌握的资源有限,我们无法穷尽所有,难免有遗漏之处,也可能会有一些信息不完全准确,欢迎所有关注中国反家庭暴力工作的朋友们给我们提供更多的相关信息和改进意见,以帮助我们共同完善本大事记,联系电话:010-84833270,邮箱:gongyilvshi@woman-legalaid.org.cn。

反对家庭暴力,需要你我共同参与。

以下为中国反家庭暴力大事记正文内容:

1990

1990年中美妇女研讨会及1993-1994年世界妇女大会区域性论坛等会议的召开,反家庭暴力在中国正式成为一个学术议题

1991

1991年7月,《中国妇女》杂志发表题为《家庭暴力白皮书》的文章,作者是北京律师皮小明,家庭暴力作为一种社会问题在中国首次被提出

1992

1992年,北京红枫妇女心理咨询服务中心开通当时全国第一条妇女热线,同时也是全国第一条心理公益热线。

1994

1994年,以国际家庭年为契机,北京红枫妇女心理咨询服务中心在北京城区和郊区分别做了30例家庭暴力个案调查,后集结出版,这是民间机构对家庭暴力比较早期的个案研究。2004年,该中心正式开通反家庭暴力热线。

1994年10月,中国社会工作者协会京伦家庭科学中心开通了全国第一条“家庭暴力投诉热线”,为家庭暴力受害者提供服务。

1995

1995年8月7日,国务院发布《中国妇女发展纲要》(1995-2000年),这是中国政府第一部关于妇女发展的专门规划,第一次明确使用了“家庭暴力”概念

1995年9月4日-15日,第四次世界妇女大会在北京召开,大会制定并通过进一步加速执行《内罗毕战略》的《北京宣言》和《北京行动纲领》,明确把对妇女的暴力和基本人权自由联系在一起,称“对妇女的暴力,侵犯、损害或剥夺了妇女的基本人权和自由”,中国政府承诺制止家庭暴力,保护妇女、儿童、老人等一切弱势群体的权益,家庭暴力问题越来越广泛地引起中国社会的关注。

1995年9月,湖北省一位女企业家建起了大陆地区的第一家家庭暴力受害妇女庇护所,一年后不堪施暴者骚扰和社会舆论压力而关闭。

1995年12月,中国第一家专门从事妇女法律援助、研究与倡导的公益性机构——北京大学法学院妇女法律研究与服务中心成立,中心一直将家庭暴力问题作为机构的重点关注、研究和推动领域,主要通过提供免费法律咨询、办理典型案件、意识和技能培训、送法下乡(社区)、试点建设、立法推进等方式,推动反家庭暴力工作的开展。

1996

1996年1月,湖南省长沙市委办公厅、长沙市人民政府办公厅联合下发《关于预防和制止家庭暴力的若干规定》,这是中国内地出台的第一个反对家庭暴力的地方性政策,“家庭暴力”一词进入中国官方文件之中。

1998

1998年6月,北京大学法学院妇女法律研究与服务中心组织召开了一次反家庭暴力研讨会,这是国内比较早的涉及家庭暴力问题的研讨会。会上,中心汇报了实践中办理的涉及家庭暴力的30多个“解决不了”的案例,并讨论了成立一个推动反家暴立法的组织的想法。

1999

1999年,长沙市公安局制定下发《关于贯彻执行〈长沙市预防和制止家庭暴力的若干规定〉的意见》,这是全国第一个公安机关出台的关于处理家庭暴力的文件。此后,各地公安机关从省公安厅到地市公安局到基层派出所,多有制定关于办理家暴案件的接警、处警、取证、登记等环节的执法规定。公安机关在各地建立了家暴投诉站、110报警点、家暴伤情鉴定中心,开展了对警察干预家暴的培训。

1999年4月,美国旧金山预防家庭暴力基金会设计了在全球四个国家推展旧金山医疗系统干预家庭暴力模式的项目计划,美国福特基金会、美国全球妇女基金会为此项目提供资助。经考察评估,确定将该项目放在北京,由中华女子学院社会工作系负责运作,并纳入中国法学会“反对针对妇女的家庭暴力对策研究与干预”项目,成为15个分项目之一,并确定北京市丰台区铁营医院为医疗系统干预家庭暴力的试点医院,率先在全国开始了在医疗机构中建立家庭暴力干预机制的探索

1999年11月,联合国大会通过决议,将每年的11月25日定为“国际消除对妇女的暴力日”,决议呼吁各国政府、联合国机构和非政府组织实施《北京宣言》和《北京行动纲领》,提高公众对针对妇女的暴力问题的认识。

1999年12月28日,由北京大学法学院妇女法律研究与服务中心、中华女子学院社工系女性咨询与发展中心、北京红枫妇女心理咨询服务中心和陕西省妇联妇女研究会联合成立的“反家庭暴力工作小组”研讨会在北京召开,与会者建议要改变司法机关和社会团体在反对家庭暴力行动中的角色定位,控制家庭暴力事态应多渠道和多角度地运用司法机关和社会团体的职能,充分发挥他们的威慑与教育作用,要加强反家庭暴力机关与组织的联系与配合,使反家庭暴力行动形成一个医疗、鉴定、庇护、律师、警察、法院、妇联及心理康复机构的“反家暴网络”,新闻媒体应把握舆论导向,适时地宣传与报道家庭暴力案件的正确处理,维护被害人的权益。

2000

2000年3月31日,湖南省人大常委会审议通过《关于预防和制止家庭暴力的决议》,这是全国第一部反对家庭暴力的地方性法规,“家庭暴力”概念首次出现在中国的法律体系中。

2000年4月,陕西省西安市妇联和陕西妇女婚姻家庭研究会对西安市雁塔区派出所民警进行警察干预家庭暴力的专业培训,开创了妇联和妇女民间组织对公安系统进行反家暴尝试和实操技能培训的先例。

2000年6月,中国法学会反对家庭暴力网络(研究中心)成立,网络集合了全国各地法学、社会学、妇女学、社工学、医学、新闻学、心理学等学科的理论研究、教学工作者,以及妇女工作者、妇女活动家、律师、公、检、法、司、人大等执法和立法部门的实际工作者,始终将从社会性别和妇女人权的视角关注家庭暴力、干预家庭暴力作为自己的使命,并团结各地区、各领域的广泛成员展开反家庭暴力的联合行动。网络在“反对针对妇女的家庭暴力对策研究与干预”的总项目下,设立了反家暴资料中心、反对家庭暴力网站、社会性别培训、针对妇女的家庭暴力行为状况调查研究、家庭暴力司法干预状况调查研究、热线咨询家庭暴力个案研究、反家暴媒体宣传、受暴妇女口述实录、反家暴培训系列教材、对受暴妇女的法律援助、城市反家暴社区干预、反家暴医疗干预、农村反家暴社区干预以及反家暴国内研讨会、反家暴国际研讨会等15个分项目。网络主要通过反家暴多机构干预研究、反家暴立法倡导和社会性别意识培训,在多机构合作、社区干预、受暴妇女支持、社会救助、男性参与、医疗司法改革等领域都初步创立了独特模式并在全国范围内推广,同时多次通过两会代表递交《家庭暴力防治法(建议稿)》、《人身安全保护令司法解释》、《警察干预家庭暴力规程》等立法、司法及政策建议,为推动中国的反家庭暴力工作做出了独特的、卓有成效的贡献。

2000年11月2日,《中国妇女报》登载“关注绝望的抗争:受虐妇女综合症的理论与实践”一文,家庭暴力以暴制暴“受虐妇女综合症”一词正式进入社会公众视野,在法律上被用来指长期受丈夫或男友暴力虐待的妇女表现出的一种特殊的行为模式,由暴力周期(Cycle Of Violence)和后天无助感(Learned Helplessness)二个概念组成。

2001

反对对妇女暴力为主题的著名话剧《阴道独白》,从2001年南京、2002年上海的英文演出到2003年中山大学中文首演至2009年,陆续有复旦、北大、华中师大、厦大、首师大等高校、南宁中学生及专业团体的演出。《阴道独白》的排练、演出、观看和讨论,将反对家庭暴力和对妇女暴力的深刻思辨以艺术形式顽强传播,它是提高觉悟、动员行动和消除暴力的过程,在青年人中获得积极反响和良好效果。

2001年2月22日,“反对家庭暴力是全社会的共同责任——‘白丝带’宣传活动·媒体新闻活动”在北京举行。

2001年4月28日,《中华人民共和国婚姻法(修正案)》正式通过,明确禁止家庭暴力,并规定对家庭暴力受害人的救助措施和加害人的法律责任,这是第一次在国家立法中对家庭暴力问题作出明确规定

2001年5月,湖南省长沙市芙蓉区在全国率先推出创建“零家庭暴力社区”工程,明确“介入率为100%,介入盲区为零”的目标,建立了七大维权网络,并设定了具体的家庭暴力评估指标和考核机制,探索建立社会化、制度化防治家庭暴力的工作机制。

2001年10月,电视剧《不要和陌生人说话》上映,这是中国第一部反映家庭暴力题材的电视连续剧

2001年12月10日,为纪念国际人权日和“国际反对对妇女的暴力十六日行动”(11月25日至12月10日),联合国法治主题组与妇女传媒监测网络合作,在北京举行“白丝带”纪念活动。活动邀请了国际机构、政府部门、民间组织代表、中外媒体及青年学生参加。根据对活动的评估问卷,很多参会者表示是第一次知道白丝带活动,近百分之八十的人对会议介绍的针对妇女的暴力信息有所或深有触动。

2001年12月25日,最高人民法院公布《最高人民法院关于适用<中华人民共和国婚姻法>若干问题的解释(一)》,明确家庭暴力的定义为:家庭暴力,是指行为人以殴打、捆绑、残害、强行限制人身自由或者其他手段,给其家庭成员的身体、精神等方面造成一定伤害后果的行为。

2002

2002年6月,辽宁省鞍山市人民检察院成立了全国第一家女检察官公诉组重点办理妇女儿童是被害人、妇女是犯罪嫌疑人等类案件。此后,辽宁省其他地区以及北京、河北、河南、陕西等地的一些检察院也设置了类似的机构。

2002年10月14日,参加河北省妇女法律服务(援助)机构骨干律师培训班的律师率先发起“白丝带”活动倡议书签名活动,强调“作为律师,尤其是男性律师,有责任敦促男人站出来反对对妇女的家庭暴力”,并向全省律师及各界男性倡议承诺:1、“在任何时候、任何情况下都不实施家庭暴力”;2、“积极参加预防和制止家庭暴力行动”;3、“对遭受家庭暴力的妇女伸出援助之手”。同年,国内第一个“反对针对妇女的暴力,促进社会性别平等男性志愿小组”在京成立;其后,浙江省温州乐清市“男性反家庭暴力志愿小组”、“长沙市反家暴男性参与行动小组”、“北京心理咨询师反家暴男性参与行动小组”相继成立。在每年的消除对妇女的暴力16日行动中,有更多、更广泛的各界青年男女参加白丝带行动。

2003

2003年3月,中国法学会反对家庭暴力网络第一次提交《家庭暴力防治法》(建议稿)。之后,网络于2006年重新成立修订专家小组,经过三次专项调研、六次专门研讨、七易其稿,对2003年的建议稿进行了全面修订,并于2010年3月再次向全国人大递交。

2003年,湖南省综治委在全国率先将预防和制止家庭暴力工作纳入了全省社会治安综合治理的考核内容,在“群众评价”部分占1分。

2003年6月12日,徐州市民政局和市妇联联合建立了徐州市家庭暴力庇护中心,发挥了民政部门的社会福利主渠道作用。

2003年12月,河北省石家庄市裕华区人民法院成立了全国首家“反家庭暴力合议庭”

2003年底,北京市海淀区人民检察院启动“预防和控制家庭暴力”项目,这是中国基层检察院首次开展反家庭暴力相关项目

2004

2004年7月22日,河北省人大常委会颁布《河北省预防和制止家庭暴力条例》,这是全国第一部专门针对家庭暴力,并以条例形式出现的地方性法规

据有关部门的权威调查,我国家庭暴力的发生率在29.7%~35.7%之间(不包括调查暗数),其中90%以上的受害人是女性。在中国2.7亿个家庭中,约30%(即8100万个)家庭中存在不同程度的家庭暴力,其中施暴者九成为男性,每年有10万个家庭因家庭暴力而宣告解体

2005

2005年,“预防和制止家庭暴力工作”被确定为“平安长沙”和创建全国文明城市重要评比内容。

2005年2月28日,中央电视台《新闻调查——女子监区调查》播出,CCTV《新闻调查》栏目组走进石家庄监狱女子监区,近距离接触那些因为遭受家庭暴力杀死丈夫被判重刑的女犯们,在社会上引起了巨大轰动,引发了社会各界对家庭暴力以暴制暴案件是否应该轻刑化和去罪化的广泛讨论和深刻反思,也成为日后各种反家庭暴力培训班的经典视听资料。

2005年8月28日,《妇女权益保障法》(修正案)规定:“禁止对妇女实施家庭暴力”“国家采取措施,预防和制止家庭暴力”,规定了各机构防治家庭暴力的责任。此外,各省(区、市)也相继修改了《妇女权益保障法》实施办法,均对预防和制止家庭暴力作出了专门规定。

2006

2006年12月29日,全国人大常委会修改《未成年人保护法》,明确规定“禁止对未成年人实施家庭暴力”。

2007

致力于多元性别平等的民间非营利组织“同语”于2007-2009年开展的《女同(双)性恋者家庭暴力状况调查及反暴手册编写》项目,对北京、上海、鞍山、成都、昆明、南宁、珠海、广州八个城市428份有效实地问卷和472份有效网络问卷统计显示,女同(双)性恋者所受家暴平均发生率为38.47%,远高于第三期全国妇女社会地位调查公布的家暴发生率的24.7%。其中,来自父母以及亲属的暴力为48.2%,来自同性伴侣的暴力为42.2%;来自以前或现在的异性伴侣的暴力为25.0%;遭受暴力类型有身体攻击、持续的辱骂、精神虐待(包括被精神病或强迫治疗)、行踪受到监控及性侵犯等。“威吓公开性倾向”是同性伴侣中特殊的家暴类型。

2007年2月13日,湖南省长沙市妇女刘某家暴以暴制暴杀夫案由湖南省高级人民法院终审改判有期徒刑三年缓刑四年,后该案终审判决书被最高人民法院选入2007年第二辑《人民法院案例选》(刑事编)、被湖南省高级人民法院选入《湖南法院案例选》(第二辑)中,对基层法院审理家庭暴力引发的刑事案件具有很好的指导意义。

2008

2008年,多个民间机构和组织联合发起了反对对妇女暴力“十六日”联合行动,以统一培训、协调、宣传材料制作作为先导,在11月25日至12月10日的“十六日”活动期间,在全国各地分别开展多样的反家庭暴力宣传、教育活动。2009年“十六日”联合行动的参与范围更加广泛。这一联合行动的突出成绩是有多种类型的组织以及多所高校,特别是年轻人的积极参与,创造了丰富多彩的活动形式;同时,将家庭暴力与广泛的对妇女暴力乃至文化压迫和不平等的性别歧视制度连接,显示了宣传教育活动进一步深化的可能性。

2008年3月,最高人民法院中国应用法学研究所颁布《涉及家庭暴力婚姻案件审理指南》,这是全国首份涉及家庭暴力案件的司法审判参考性指导文件

2008年5月,最高人民法院中国应用法学研究所在全国确定了9个自愿参与的基层人民法院开展《涉及家庭暴力婚姻案件审理指南》的试点工作,对涉家暴案件依申请发出人身安全保护裁定,这9家试点法院包括江苏省无锡市崇安区人民法院、湖南省长沙市岳麓区人民法院、重庆市渝中区人民法院、河北省保定市南山区人民法院、浙江省温州市龙湾区人民法院、福建省莆田市城厢区人民法院、北京市崇文区人民法院、北京市海淀区人民法院、北京市东城区人民法院。

2008年7月,全国妇联、中央宣传部、最高人民检察院、公安部、民政部、司法部、卫生部七部委联合下发《关于预防和制止家庭暴力的若干意见》,这是中国第一个专门的全国性反家庭暴力规范性文件,它对家庭暴力的定义、公安部门、人民检察院、司法行政部门、卫生部门、民政部门、宣传部门、妇联组织在反家暴工作中的职责作出了比较明确的规定。

自2008年起,全国妇联连续六次在全国“两会”期间通过代表委员或单独以全国妇联名义提出“关于将反家庭暴力法列入全国人大常委会立法计划的建议”

2008年8月6日,江苏省无锡市崇安区人民法院发出全国第一份反家暴领域的人身安全保护裁定,做了“第一个吃螃蟹的人”。

截至2008年,全国已有29个省(区、市)制定了反家暴的地方性法规和政策

2009

在治理亲密关系暴力方面,《长春市预防和制止家庭暴力条例》(2009)和《浙江省预防和制止家庭暴力条例》(2011)都把同性同居关系的暴力视为家庭暴力,纳入干预范畴,规定“本条例所称家庭成员,是指配偶、父母、子女以及其他共同生活的家庭组成人员”。

2009年4月15日,湖南省高级人民法院正式出台《关于加强对家庭暴力受害妇女司法保护的指导意见(试行)》,这是全国首个由省级法院制定的家庭暴力案件审理制度性文件。其中,关于“证据认定规则”、“人身安全保护裁定”、“以暴制暴案件从轻减轻处罚”等规定,在反家暴司法保护制度建设中有所突破。

2009年5月12日,广东省珠海市香洲区人民法院签发人身安全保护裁定,首次规定在裁定生效期间任何一方不得擅自处置价值较大的夫妻共同财产,这是中国首个涉及财产保护的人身安全保护裁定

截止2009年9月,民政部门在全国近20个省(区、市)约60个城市救助管理站设立了家庭暴力庇护中心民间组织推动建立的各种形式的庇护所也在发展。

2009年10月19日,北京女青年董某结婚后仅308天即被丈夫王某活活殴打致死。后一审、二审法院均只是以虐待罪判处被告人王某有期徒刑六年零六个月。经北京大学法学院妇女法律研究与服务中心援助律师的介入以及相关专家、媒体和公众的广泛关注和跟进,本案在全国产生了持续而深远的社会影响,一度引起了众多专家学者、法律人、公民组织、社会公众以及相关政府部门对家庭暴力问题的全面关注和深刻反思,它也成了后来召开的各种层面的反家庭暴力培训研讨会重点讨论的典型案件,董某以其年轻的生命为代价谱写了一曲悲壮的反家暴之歌

2010

2010年4月10日,重庆市酉阳土家族苗族自治县人民法院发出全国第一份针对离婚后仍然遭受家庭暴力的人身安全保护令

2010年5月27日,湖南省长沙市委政法委印发《关于深入推进预防和制止家庭暴力司法执法工作的若干意见》,强化政法部门机构间的联动合作,明确在法院系统推行“人身保护民事裁定”,细化公安机关协助执行要求,这是全国首个由市级政法委牵头规范反家暴司法执法工作的文件,多机构合作预防和制止反家暴工作格局在全国率先建立

2010年6月1日,湖南省长沙市岳麓区人民法院签发了全国第一例男性为受害者的保护裁定

2010年8月16日,湖南省长沙市中级人民法院签发了全国第一例由中级人民法院发出的人身安全保护裁定

2010年11月3日,四川安岳妇女李某家庭暴力以暴制暴杀夫碎尸案发生,原审一审、二审法院在完全不考虑家庭暴力事实情节的情形下均以故意杀人罪判处被告妇女李某死刑立即执行,案件随即引起了国内外媒体的强烈关注和社会公众的强烈反响,大家纷纷呼吁最高人民法院刀下留人。经援助律师的积极奔走,同时也在社会各界关注妇女权益和家庭暴力问题的公众共同呼吁下,最高人民法院经认真审核本案事实证据,裁定不予核准死刑。2015年4月24日,四川省高级人民法院对本案进行重审二审宣判,法院认为“在案证据能够证明被害人谭某在婚姻家庭生活中多次打骂李某,对案件的引发存在一定过错,李某归案后如实供述其犯罪事实,对李某判处死刑,可不立即执行”,最终以故意杀人罪判处李某死刑缓期二年执行。接到判决后,李某表示不上诉,并通过辩护律师向全国人大法工委提交了《反家庭暴力法(草案)》的个人修改意见。该案被评为“2015年度性别平等十大新闻事件”之一,也被选为2015年中国十大影响性诉讼的候选30个案例之一。

2010年11月5日,陕西省安康市汉滨区人民法院,发出全国第一例禁止虐待老人的人身安全保护裁定

2011

2011年4月14日,湖南省浏阳市人民法院签发全国首例为保护女童的人身安全保护令

2011年6月17日,联合国人权理事会投票通过关于性倾向和性别身份的人权决议,该决议是联合国历史上的第一次对世界各地存在的针对同性恋者、双性恋者和跨性别者的暴力和歧视问题深表关注,并促请人权事务高级专员在2011年底之前组织实施全球范围的相关专题调查,以收集记录各国针对性倾向和性别身份的歧视性法律以及暴力现象,同时研究如何在联合国和国际公约的法律框架内解决相关的侵犯人权问题。中国政府一反过去对此类议题投反对票的惯例,首次投了弃权票,可看作是我们对性倾向问题认知上的进步。而这与中国民间组织坚持不懈的努力不无关系,在每年的5月17日“国际不再恐同日”、12月17日“国际终止暴力对待性工作者日”、11月25日“国际反对对妇女的暴力日”及16日反对性别暴力行动等期间,民间组织都积极组织活动,倡导多元性别平等、反对对性少数人群的暴力。

2011年7月,全国人大常委会将反家庭暴力法纳入预备立法项目,并开始进行立法调研和论证工作。

2011年8月底,疯狂英语创始人李阳美籍妻子Kim在微博上公开曝光李阳对她实施家庭暴力,并公布了数张照片为证引发热议。2013年2月3日,历时一年多的“李阳家暴门”离婚案有了结果。北京市朝阳区人民法院认定李阳家庭暴力行为成立,准予李阳和妻子Kim离婚,三个女儿由Kim抚养,李阳支付三个女儿抚养费每人每年10万元至18周岁;李阳向Kim支付精神损害抚慰金5万元、财产折价款1200万元。在离婚案件宣判之前,法院根据Kim的申请作出人身安全保护裁定,禁止李阳殴打、威胁Kim,如李阳违反上述禁令,法院将视情节轻重处以罚款、拘留,构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任,裁定有效期为3个月。据了解,这是新《民事诉讼法》实施后,北京市法院系统发出的首份家庭暴力“人身安全保护令”。案件一经宣判,即得到社会的普遍认同,中国法学会主办的《民主与法制时报》称该案“因法院尊重事实和法律且具有创新性的判决,成为涉及家庭暴力离婚案件的经典判例”。美国以深度报道见长的著名杂志《纽约客》也撰文称此案为“中国里程碑式的家暴案件”,认为法院的判决对于中国反家暴立法有着深远的影响。

2011年10月,全国妇联和国家统计局共同组织实施的第三期中国妇女社会地位调查结果发布:在整个婚姻生活中曾遭受过配偶侮辱谩骂、殴打、限制人身自由、经济控制、强迫性生活等不同形式家庭暴力的女性占24.7%,其中,明确表示遭受过配偶殴打的比例为5.5%,农村和城镇分别为7.8%和3.1%。

2012

2012年2月22日,广东省珠海市香洲区人民法院,发出全国首份反家暴“远离令”

2012年8月31日,修订后的《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》对诉讼保全制度进行了较大修改,在原有的财产保全之外,增加了“行为保全”内容,为家庭暴力人身安全保护令的实施提供了直接而明确的法律依据。

2012年9月,广东省黄埔区人民法院签发全国首份同居关系人身安全保护令

2013

2013年,湖南省启动“多机构合作识别和干预家暴案件”工作,系统化地设计、建立多机构合作、危险评估、联席会议等机制。针对信访个案,推行《家庭暴力案件危险性评估量表》,对家暴个案进行危险性评估分级。针对高危个案,要求各级妇联组织立即启动多机构合作干预机制,召开高危机家暴案件联席会议,社区、公安、检察、法院、调解、法律援助、医疗、民政、教育等工作人员分别通报受害人情况、危险评估情况、处置和干预情况以及提请协助的情况等,对施暴者、受暴人、目睹儿少的干预明确细化责任、分工合作,并通过信息平台及时通报案件进展情况;针对中低危案件,各级可通过咨询指导、心理疏导、专家调解等形式自行处理或转介处理。联席会议制度首先在长沙、湘潭地区开展试点, 2015年,推广至全省14个市州并纳入省级平安家庭综治考核。

2013年4月9日,湖南省公安厅制定下发《湖南省公安机关办理家庭暴力案件工作规定》,明确了公安机关办理家庭暴力案件的工作原则、职责和流程,强调风险评估、受害人为本以及调解优先,这是全国首个由省级公安机关发布的警察处理家庭暴力案件规范性文件

2013年7月1日,江苏省苏州市正式实施《苏州市家庭暴力告诫办法》,这是全国首个关于家庭暴力告诫的规范性文件

2013年7月,江苏省在多地试点基础上,省高级人民法院、省人民检察院、省公安厅和省妇联联合发布《江苏省家庭暴力告诫制度实施办法(试行)》,《办法》同时规定“具有同居关系或者曾经有过配偶关系者之间的暴力侵害行为可以参照本办法处理。”同年10月,宁夏回族自治区公安厅、高级人民法院、检察院和自治区妇联联合制定了《宁夏回族自治区家庭暴力告诫制度实施办法》。浙江省温州市也制定实施了告诫制度 。

2013年11月12日,北京市第二中级人民法院终审判决中央电视台体育频道节目主持人柴某与妻子小结离婚,认定柴某在家庭生活中对妻子小洁实施了一定的暴力行为及暴力威胁,一岁的婚生子归小洁抚养。判决生效后,长达两年多的时间里,柴某一直未将孩子交还给前妻小洁抚养。此案经媒体曝光后,引起了社会公众的强烈愤慨,执行法院北京市朝阳区人民法院也非常重视,法院刑庭直接出面干涉,迫于法律和舆论的双重压力,柴某最终把孩子交给了前妻小洁。本案的成功,表明涉及抚养权、探视权等身份关系案件的执行尽管艰难,但也并非全无解决的办法,很大程度上还是取决于执行法院的作为程度和手段

2013年,十二届全国人大常委会正式将制定《反家庭暴力法》纳入五年立法规划。随后,全国妇联起草了立法建议稿。

2014

2014年2月27日,最高人民法院召开新闻发布会,通报近年来人民法院开展司法干预家庭暴力保护妇女儿童和老人权益有关情况,其新闻发言人指出,根据最高人民法院的统计,涉及家庭暴力的故意杀人案件,占到全部故意杀人案件的近10%

2014年5月5日,北京市海淀区人民法院发布家庭暴力调研报告,报告显示,自2011年以来(截至2014年5月初),海淀区人民法院受理的涉家暴离婚案连年上升但认定的比例一直低于8%,在认定比较低的家暴案件中,相比身体伤害,性暴力及经济控制是更加具有隐秘性的家庭暴力手段,当事人常因无“客观”的证据而让法官无法采信。

2014年6月,江苏省徐州市邵某强奸、猥亵不满十周岁亲生女儿小玲案案发。同年10月,邵某被人民法院数罪并罚判处有期徒刑十一年。小玲母亲王某8年多来一直未对小玲尽抚养义务,且自小玲被性侵案发后半年多对其不闻不问,有实质遗弃行为。小玲祖父母早年去世,外祖母等亲属明确表示不愿抚养,小玲暂由热心村民张女士抚养。2015年1月7日,徐州市铜山区民政局向铜山区人民法院提起撤销小玲父母邵某、王某监护人资格,另行指定监护人的申请。2015年2月4日,铜山区人民法院适用民事诉讼特别程序,经开庭审理并当庭作出一审终审判决:撤销小玲父母邵某、王某的法定监护权,指定铜山区民政局为小玲的监护人。该案是全国首例由民政部门申请撤销监护人资格案件,也是全国首例适用最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、民政部联合颁布并于2015年1月1日起实施的《关于依法处理监护人侵害未成年人权益行为若干问题的意见》的案件

2014年11月5日,安徽省马鞍山市中级人民法院公开审理一起被告妇女因家庭暴力以暴制暴杀夫的刑事案件,庭审中尝试性地引入了专家证人出庭制度,家庭暴力问题研究专家、最高人民法院中国应用法学研究所性别与法律研究中心主任陈敏出席庭审,就家庭暴力的特点和规律以及家庭暴力受害人的受暴经历与其最终实施以暴制暴行为之间是否存在关联性等相关专业性问题进行了详细阐述,这在全国属于首例

2014年11月,江苏省徐州市贾汪区人民法院建起了全国法院系统首家反家暴临时庇护所,为前去诉讼又一时无法立案或宣判的可能存在人身安全的受暴者提供临时的紧急庇护。

2014年11月25日,国务院法制办公室就《中华人民共和国反家庭暴力法(征求意见稿)》向社会公开征求意见

2014年12月,北京性少数权益机构“同语”发布《中国性少数群体家庭暴力研究报告》,该报告通过对中国8个城市419位个案受访者的问卷调查,在这调查的419份个案中,曾经遭受到家庭暴力的女同/双性恋者的比例为68.97%;其中来自原生家庭的暴力比例最高,为49.16%,其次是同性伴侣之间的暴力为42.64%。从暴力类型上,精神暴力是该群体遭受的主要暴力,来自原生家庭的精神暴力为46.30%,同性伴侣之间的精神暴力占比40.63%。同时,调查发现性倾向是该群体区别于其他群体的暴力的影响因素之一。

2015

2015年3月2日,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部联合颁布《关于依法办理家庭暴力犯罪案件的意见》,这是全国首份涉及家庭暴力的刑事司法指导性文件

2015年8月24日,《中华人民共和国反家庭暴力法(草案)》由国务院提请全国人大常委会初次审议,并于9月向社会公开征求意见。

2015年年底,致力于多元性别平等的民间非营利组织“同语”发布了中国首份亲密关系暴力的全国网络调查报告,通过对包括877名非异性恋者在内的3334名对象的调查,对比不同性倾向的群体,在严重精神暴力方面,同性恋和双性恋无论是施加还是遭遇的暴力显著高于异性恋者,双性恋者报告的遭遇严重精神暴力的比率(25.7%)甚至高于同性恋者(21.8%)和异性恋者(18.2%)。这份研究报告还记录了一些同性恋伴侣的家暴案例。

2015年11月27日,在家庭暴力告诫制度实施的第三天,长沙市发出湖南省第一例家庭暴力告诫书。2016年1月,针对同一起家暴案件,长沙的法院、公安先后发出保护令和告诫令,被誉为“反家暴全国第一案”。

2015年12月27日,第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十八次会议二次审议表决通过《中华人民共和国反家庭暴力法》,除了身体暴力,精神暴力和同居暴力也纳入了《反家庭暴力法》规制范畴

2016

2016年3月1日,《中华人民共和国反家庭暴力法》正式施行,标志着中国的反家庭暴力工作迈出了具有里程碑意义的重要一步。同日,北京、湖南、福建、江苏、浙江、山东6省市分别核发了各自地区首张人身安全保护令。紧接着,四川、天津、河南、海南、陕西、上海等地相继先后签发了首张人身安全保护令。

其中,3月1日法律实施当天,湖南省长沙市妇联到岳麓区人民法院,代家庭暴力受害人周某递交人身安全保护令申请书,得到了法院支持,这是湖南省首份单独立案的人身安全保护令,也是全国第一份由妇联组织代为申请的人身安全保护令

2016年4月6日,内蒙古自治区鄂尔多斯市杭锦旗女记者红梅因采访应酬之事,被其丈夫金柱殴打致死,后一审、二审法院均以故意伤害罪(致人死亡)判处被告人金柱死刑缓期两年执行。对比七年前的同类案件北京女青年董珊珊遭丈夫家暴致死案中被告人王光宇被法院以虐待罪判处六年零六个月有期徒刑的定罪量刑,简直天差地别。

2016年5月11日,湖南省长沙市岳麓区下发《长沙市岳麓区未成年人家庭暴力强制报告和处置办法》,该办法在全国属于第一个关于家庭暴力强制报告制度的地方性政策

2016年6月,北京市东城区人民法院签发全国首份跨地区家庭暴力人身安全保护令

2016年7月13日,《最高人民法院关于人身安全保护令案件相关程序问题的批复》正式施行,该《批复》明确:申请人身安全保护令,不收取诉讼费用,申请人不需要提供担保,比照特别程序进行审理,复议申请可以由原审判组织进行,也可以另行指定审判组织进行。

2016年11月1日,北京市第三中级人民法院召开通报会,对2014年1月至2016年7月北京市各中级法院审结的婚姻家庭类二审民事案件进行梳理后发现,当事人主张存在家庭暴力的案件共有213件,经法院审理认定构成家庭暴力的仅为22件,认定率为10.3%;当事人以家庭暴力为由主张损害赔偿的有73件,仅有17件得到了法院判决支持,支持率仅为23%,且赔偿数额多在5万元以下;主张对方实施家暴的受害人,提出由其抚养未成年子女的共有76件,法院判决支持的有34件,占比44.7%。

2016年3月1日至2016年12月底,全国法院共计发出680余份人身安全保护令。

2017

2017年3月1日,《中华人民共和国反家庭暴力法》施行满一周年。据不完全统计,全国已有24个省(区、市)出台了贯彻《反家庭暴力法》的配套制度和文件共计240份,涵盖公安、法院、民政、教育、妇联等部门,主要涉及反家暴的工作原则、各部门职责和分工、强制报告制度、告诫制度、人身安全保护令制度等方面。但总体而言,《反家庭暴力法》在基层的贯彻落实是有喜有忧,仍有许多地方亟待加强和细化,相关的配套制度也需要及时跟进和完善。

2017年7月19日,最高人民法院等15个部门联合召开家事审判方式和工作机制改革联席会议。会上,最高人民法院介绍,2016年3月1日至2017年6月底,全国各地法院共发出1284份人身安全保护令。

截至2017年7月,全国已有24个省(区、市)出台贯彻实施《反家庭暴力法》的配套法规和政策文件共计247个。

2017年10月1日,新修订的《长春市预防和制止家庭暴力条例》正式施行,成为《反家庭暴力法》出台后全国第一个地方立法跟进的城市。在《条例》附则中,进一步明确了《反家庭暴力法》中“家庭成员以外其他共同生活的人”包括“具有监护、扶养、寄养、同居等关系且共同生活的人之间实施的暴力行为,参照本条例规定执行”。

2017年9月12日,陕西《都市快报》发表了一篇题为“媳妇遭丈夫公婆家暴 浑身是伤死于家中”的新闻报道。本案的特殊之处不仅仅在于行凶手段的残忍程度令人发指,还在于施暴人是死者的丈夫和婆婆,死者遭受的不是单个个体的暴力,而是家族成员的共同暴力。

2017年11月23日,北京同志中心发布《2017中国跨性别群体生存现状调查报告》,1640位父母为监护人的受访者中,只有6位从来没有受过原生家庭的暴力,其中跨性别女性遭遇原生家庭的暴力几率更高、且经常受到暴力、遭受极端暴力形式的比例最高。

2017年11月28日,北京为平妇女权益机构发布《20个月走了多远 <中华人民共和国反对家庭暴力法>实施监测报告》(2016年3月1日-2017年10月31日),该实施监测报告对过去20个月来,《反家庭暴力法》在基层的贯彻落实情况做了一个十分详尽的统计分析,涉及防治家庭暴力的方方面面。报告结语认为:过去20个月以来,尤其是2017年3月1日以来,推动《反家庭暴力法》实施的力量逐渐增强,越来越多的受暴者寻求帮助,勇敢发声,越来越多的父母亲朋积极支持他们的亲人维权,越来越多的“路人甲”,作为邻居、同学、同事或素不相识的旁观者代为报警、求助和伸出援手,越来越多的机构开展反家暴宣传教育和服务,越来越多的公权力机构做出了积极回应。但是,法律规定和实施中依然存在着巨大的落差。这个落差影响了广大民众权益的实现和对法制的殷切期望,特别是受家暴影响的妇女、儿童,包括受艾滋病毒影响的妇女和女童、残障妇女和女童、性和社会性别少数。报告监测的下列数据值得关注:在媒体报道的案件中,2016年3月1日到2017年10月31日这20个月间,我国境内家暴导致的死亡案件有533起,635名成人和儿童死亡,包括被殃及的邻居、路人,平均每天家暴致死超过1人,其中绝大多数是女性。

2018

2018年3月1日,《反家庭暴力法》施行满两周年,更多内容等待您来共同书写。

Translated by Serena Chang, Emile Dirks, Jennifer Germann, Hannah Tan

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