CDB Editorial: From Self-help to Self-awareness in a Year of Scandals

China Development Brief, no. 50 (Summer 2011)

中文 English

Introduction: CDB’s editors post their thoughts on the series of scandals in the charitable, public welfare sector last year and how the sector should respond in this age of media and social media hype.

This past year, the hottest topic to come out of the public welfare sector was undoubtedly Guo Meimei, a young, attractive girl who posted to a microblog about her extravagant lifestyle. The Chinese Red Cross and even the entire charity sector came under fire for being associated with her. In contrast, the fallout was far less from previous controversies, like the exorbitant prices that the Red Cross charged for tents after the 2008 earthquake or media scrutiny of the quality of projects pledged by Chinese tycoon Chen Guangbiao earlier this year. The amount of donations dropped sharply as a consequence of the Guo Meimei incident, and soon thereafter, the Ministry of Civil Affairs issued a set of Guidelines for the Disclosure of Information on Charitable Contributions.News of Guo Meimei spread from the microblogs to other media quickly and soon became the talk of the town. A friend of mine, who knew very little about the charity sector, said to me after learning it was my line of work: “You’re all infamous now.” The power of microblogging as well as other forms of new media cannot be underestimated. When petitioning, self-immolations, forced demolitions and financial scandals fail even to elicit a strong reaction from readers, media reporters start asking: What scandals in the charity sector can we dig up? Their focus shifted to philanthropy, gradually turning it into a “goldmine” for scandals. After Guo Meimei, there was the Henan Soong Ching Ling Foundation, Lu Xingyu, and the Gesanghua membership scam, making 2011 a “Year of Scandals” for philanthropy in China. This year, the charity sector has really become the main subject of scandals. The participation of netizens, celebrities and pundits have been in the forefront of shaping public opinion and promoting deeper discussion of the topic.

However, scandals have a positive role to play in driving social change, which involves more than just exposing ugly truths. For some advocacy projects, finding and exposing scandals is an effective strategy. In the 1970s, Western-style investigative reporting, which focused on “muckraking”, became popular and could be quite damaging. In the era of mass media, particularly with microblogging becoming a key medium, everyone can be a media source and publish their own news. After being reposted by millions of microbloggers, news on the microblogs will greatly outpace conventional media. The “human flesh search” phenomenon on the internet comes to mind, where the public’s participation was fueled on by both truth and lies, reason as well as fanaticism.Time and time again, the public welfare sector has come under fire and met with strong public responses and a relentless media campaign, but there were also voices of reason among them. “Breaking Out of the ‘Inner Circle’, Embracing a New Era of Public Welfare,” published in this volume of CDB, presents different opinions of experts and leaders in this field. Kang Xiaoguang, a well-known scholar, sees this as the dawn of a new era in which the Internet is rapidly changing the power balance between the government and Chinese society. At the same time, a real public opinion is emerging due to growing public empowerment. Yang Tuan, who has devoted many years to the cause of public welfare, admitted that there are inner circles here just as in many other sectors. She made an enthusiastic appeal for abandoning these inner circles and embracing this new era.Leaders in this sector hope that enhancing the transparency and credibility of foundations will set an example for the industry as a whole. This is not only industry self-regulation, but also a form of self-help.

Merely resolving the trust crisis is not enough, however; there needs to be more of a long-term initiative to promote industry self-awareness. Public welfare in China currently exists in a fragmented and divided state. The industry is characterized by great variation in the amount of resources and stage of development. The Guo Meimei incident galvanized the community and provided a basis for discussion. However, the incident was not unique and failed to set a precedent for most grassroots organizations. With the growing popularity of muckraking, grassroots organizations that have a weaker base of support have been more likely to fall prey to media sensationalism and uncertainty. Grassroots organizations had doubts about the Gesanghua membership fraud reporting, but few further actions have been taken. On September 13, there was a discussion of “whether charitable donations merit tax deductions” on the popular Tencent microblog. It featured two experts, who microbloggers deemed by all accounts to be novices.

This discussion was just a “warm up” for the forthcoming China Charity 100 Forum. Experts portray it as a discussion of practical, operational considerations, aimed at promoting a culture of charitable giving and encouraging individuals to educate themselves about their rights and interests. At the same time, this inadvertently touches on grassroots organizations, most of which are still not eligible to issue tax-deductible receipts. An all-around understanding of philanthropy is needed; we, in fact, often focus on some parts at the expense of others.At the moment when we are caught in a deluge of opinions that range from the useful to the superfluous, emotion-ridden to logical, constructive to destructive, people often give hurried responses or are content with being onlookers as long as the fire does not reach them. This calls to mind the discussion raised by Li Chengpeng and Cheng Danqing of whether the “Human Flesh Search” for Guo Meimei is a legacy left over from the Cultural Revolution. Although we are pleased to see such a bottom-up process, we should ask ourselves: How many of us have adopted the attitudes of onlookers? Is a search like this constructive and rational? How much have mindsets changed since the Cultural Revolution and even earlier periods? Has the Internet turned us into real citizens? Have the tragic and disorienting effects of the Cultural Revolution, as Chen Danqing mentioned, really left us?Before we embrace this digital era, we need to be wary of and have a clear understanding of the vulnerability of public welfare organizations’ voices in this age of new media, and the limitations of China’s public welfare organizations’ development in this stage. Only in this way, amid the noise and chaos of a changing world, can we carefully cultivate and safeguard the achievements accumulated in the past two decades of civil society development.

中国发展简报 2011秋季刊第51卷
从行业自救到行业自觉
虽然距2012年还有3个月的时间,但今年公益领域最大热点基本可以断定非“郭美美事件”莫属。一个美少女微博炫富,刮起了社会对红十字会乃至整个公益行业的巨大质疑旋风。相比之下,2008年地震期间的红十字会天价帐篷、今年早些时候媒体质疑陈光标承诺所捐的项目多掺水等等,通通不过是小巫见到大巫,“郭美美事件”直接导致了当期捐款数额下跌、民政部随即出台《公益慈善捐助信息披露指引》。
熙熙攘攘的“郭美美事件”很快从网上到网下,从新媒体到传统媒体,成为街谈巷议的话题。一位对公益慈善领域鲜有了解的朋友得知笔者在这个行当里,当即对笔者说“你们可是臭了街了”。微博乃至更多的新媒体的力量不可小觑,当上访、自焚、强拆、财经丑闻都已经不再刺激读者神经的时候,媒体记者转而问询:公益圈有啥可以深挖的丑闻?各类媒体今年移步公益领域,使这里遂成为丑闻“富矿”。紧随“郭美美事件”后面的是河南宋基会、“卢美美”、格桑花会员造假一系列事件,形成了2011年公益领域“丑闻年”。除了网民的全民性参与,名人、名嘴诸多意见领袖站在了舆论前线,继续引领话题深入。这一年公益领域真成了媒体报道中的丑闻主角。
在推动社会发展进程中,丑闻的作用并不都是“丑”的,甚至在一些倡导项目中,挖掘并发布丑闻是一个有效的策略。 20世纪70年代开始盛行于西方的调查报道,就是以“扒粪”为主要素材,杀伤力颇大。在新媒体尤其是微博做传播主角的时代,每个人都可以成为媒体中心、发布新闻,经由数以万计、数十万计的传播,其威力将传统媒体远远甩在后面。 “人肉搜索”的大众参与,真实与谎言、理性与狂热融为一炉,气势浩荡.
来势猛烈的公众质疑、媒体造势,让业界虽然连连中弹,却不乏理性之声。本期发表的“打破'小圈子',拥抱公益新时代”一文,呈现了专家和公益领袖们不同的声音。著名学者康晓光认为这是一个时代的来临,互联网正在彻底地改变中国社会和政府的力量格局,大众力量的崛起,开始有了真正的舆论。杨团浸淫公益慈善行业多年,她坦诚这里有和其他领域一样的小圈子的存在,她热情地呼吁抛弃小圈子,拥抱这个新时代。
公益业界领袖们希望以基金会行业透明度和公信力的提升来影响、带动整个公益慈善行业透明度和公信力的提升,这不仅是行业自律,也是行业自救。仅仅针对诚信危机的自救是不够的,更需要一个更长远的行业自觉,其中包括行业共同体的自觉。公益领域分散、分割,资源多寡不一,发展状态不一。 “郭美美事件”为社会各界提供了话题,而草根组织多为壁上观,似乎与自己无多大关系。在揭丑的潮流之下,“软柿子”的草根组织更容易被不明前因后果、不明就里只要轰动效果的媒体击破。草根组织对于格桑花会员造假的报道,存在一份疑惑和质疑,但业界少有进一步的行动。 9月13日,在腾讯微博上展开的一场“公民捐赠抵税”的讨论,两位专家被网友认为是托儿。此次是为即将召开的慈善百人论坛“热热身”,专家认为这是一场关于实际操作的讨论,本意是倡导公民的自我选择捐赠的意识和公民自我维权意识的自我教育。但顾着这头,无意间却牵涉到了草根组织那一端,因为草根组织大多仍然不具有开具免税发票资格。公众需要对慈善和公益的多方位的理解,我们却时有顾此失彼。

 

在各种有用的无用的、情绪的理性的、破坏性的建设性的舆论一股脑袭来之际,大家或者慌忙应对,或者火没有烧到自己身上,只是观望者的态度。这不得不让人念及李承鹏和陈丹青关于人肉搜索郭美美是否文革遗风的话题。虽然大家欣喜看到这样一个自下而上的过程,但是,我们扪心自问,这里有多少的看客心态?有多少的理性又有多少的建设性?从今天回溯到文革时期,乃至更早的“人血馒头”的年代,我们的国民基因变化了多少?是否因为网络技术就使我们成为真正公民?文革中“自上而下,变成自下而上、上下不分的闹剧、悲剧和惨剧(陈丹青语)”是不是真的绝尘而去了?在拥抱这样的一个时代的时候,我们也许应该有几分警惕,清醒认识到公益行业群体的话语权在新媒体环境下的脆弱性和中国公益组织发展阶段的局限性。惟有如此,在万象更迭的乱局下,在嘈杂与混乱之中,才可以细心培护公民社会20年来筚路蓝缕所积攒的一点点成果。

Translated by Ge Yuliang

Reviewed by Katie Xiao

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