Chinese Charity in 2018: Donations Decrease, Volunteering Increases

《2019慈善蓝皮书》发布:社会捐赠总量下滑26%,志愿服务贡献价值增加50%

中文 English

Editor’s Note

This is a translation of an article originally published on CDB’s Chinese website (see the original here), which introduces the Blue Book of Philanthropy (2018). The Blue Book is produced annually by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and it is an important source of data and insights on the development of philanthropy in China.

 

As Yang Tuan, the chief editor of the Blue Book of Philanthropy (2018), says: “In 2018, charity in China struggled to move forward in the face of difficulties, but despite this its foundations have been stabilized and a new scene has appeared. From a top-down perspective, 2018 was the year for social organizations to strengthen their governance; from a bottom-up perspective, it was the year for charity to return to its original ethical spirit and leave materialism behind.”

On July 13, 2019, the book launch of the Blue Book of Philanthropy (2019) and the Chengdu Public Charity Forum were held jointly in Chengdu, Sichuan. Nearly 80 people from the charity sector, academia, enterprises, media and the government took part in the event. Guided by the Center for Social Policy Studies of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and the Social Sciences Academic Press (China), the forum was co-sponsored by the China Lingshan Council for the Promotion of Philanthropy and the Chengdu Charity Federation, hosted by the Sichuan Red Cross Foundation Waiting for Smile Fund and the Yibin Cheilopalatognathus Charity Hospital (Yibin Stomatological Hospital), and co-organized by Chengdu Science and Technology Journalism Society.

After the opening ceremony the Blue Book’s editor in chief Yang Tuan, a researcher at the Institute of Sociology of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and consultant of the Center for Social Policy Studies, officially released the book and gave some of her thoughts on big data and development of charity in China. 

 

Taking Stock of the Big Data and Development Trends of Chinese Charity in 2018

In 2018, the rule of law for charity in China has moved towards standardisation and systematisation. It was also a year in which China’s charity sector faced major challenges. Despite these difficulties, Chinese charity has not only made great efforts to strengthen its foundation, as the total amount of organisations and charitable donations has continued to grow, but it has also made progress in the areas of volunteer services, community social organisations, sectorial construction and innovation.

Many bright spots for charity in China also appeared in 2018. Due to the formal implementation of the Volunteer Service Regulations, the construction of volunteer service institutionalisation has been strengthened all-round. China has incorporated volunteer services into the overall plan for national economic and social development, bringing tremendous opportunities for the development of volunteering. In 2018, the total number of volunteers in China was about 198 million, accounting for 14% of the population in Mainland China. The number indicates an increase of 4.03 million people, with a 25% growth rate over 2017. Volunteers contributed 82.36 billion Yuan, with an increase of more than 50% over 2017.
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The number of volunteer service organisations increased from 730,000 in 2013 to 1,433,000 in 2018, with a cumulative growth rate of 95% over the intervening years. However the growth rate has slowed down to less than 10% in recent years, and the life cycle of volunteer service organisations is shorter than five years in over 60% of cases.

According to the public service platforms for Chinese social organisations, the total number of social organisations in China exceeded 816,000 at the end of 2018, including 366,000 social organisations, 443,000 social service institutions and 7,027 foundations.

Nurturing community social organisations has become a key policy of the state for the first time, with the government giving the order and the localities responding. In addition, the strategic enhancement of the internationalisation of social organisations is not only promoting joint action to integrate resources and improve efficiency and influence, but also breaking across borders and starting to focus on regional cooperation, moving towards participating in the construction of “promoting a regional community with a shared future”.

Sectorial construction has shown cumulative results over the years. New breakthroughs have been made in accountability and self-discipline, providing consultants, training, capacity-building and technical support to resource providers, research and knowledge management, communication and information dissemination. Furthermore, new methods and approaches have emerged for the study of the economic scale (N-GDP) of China’s social organisations.

Innovations in charity are continuing to develop thanks to the internet. On the one hand, internet charity is moving towards a new stage of maturity and rationality; on the other hand, with the emergence of a new charity focused on economic problems, Alibaba has listed poverty alleviation as a strategic business for the company. Alibaba plans to invest 10 billion Yuan and mobilise every unit of the IT giant’s system to explore ways to help poverty-stricken areas eliminate poverty at its root by looking at the five areas of e-commerce, ecology, education, women and health.

The concept of creating an “ethics of charity” has been in the spotlight recently. The cases of the “frost boy” and the Wang Yafeng incident has led the charity sector to reflect on vulnerable children’s struggle for survival and education, as well as the professional and ethical boundaries of charity intervention. The public uproar caused by the succession of sexual harassment scandals linked to public figures has led the sector to focus on the frat culture, deference towards the boss, sectarianism and male chauvinism which have sometimes appeared during the sector’s rapid development, as well as on the lag in the development of an ethics of charity, and the vagueness and even displacement of charitable values. In this way they transformed the credibility crisis of the charity sector into an opportunity for collective review, reflection, education and construction, and initiated positive action to construct a gender-friendly mechanism for the sector.

In 2018, 40 years after China’s reform and opening up began and 10 years after the Wenchuan earthquake relief, China’s non-governmental charity community launched various forms of commemorative activities, and systematically reflected on the gains and losses of China’s modern experimentation with philanthropy. The rise of non-governmental charity constitutes a great change for Chinese society. It reflects the practical experience that non-governmental appeals and government reforms can only make continuous progress by pooling the efforts from above and below without neglecting either side. It is also the basic principle that the future development of charity in China will have to follow.

 

Why has the total amount of social donations in China not increased but decreased?

 

In 2018 there have been many encouraging signs for charity in China, but it is worth noting the following: the total amount of social donations is about 118.2 billion, which represents a 26% drop. The total value of social public welfare is 326.52 billion Yuan, and the growth rate has declined. The number of social organisations is 816,000, and the growth rate has also declined.

The total growth rate of the three types of social organisation (foundations, social groups, and social service organisations) is about 7%, out of which the social groups basically have the slowest growth rate, increasing by 3.1% over last year. The social service organisations have maintained a stable growth rate, increasing by 10.8% over last year. The growth rate of foundations is still the fastest among the three types of organisations; however the overall trend is downward, increasing by 11.4% than last year.

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The Blue Book of Philanthropy (2019) points out that the main reason for this lies in the policy design of heavy supervision and strict registration, but the general trend towards opening up the registration of social organisations will not change, and the focus will be on the grassroots level. Due to the lag in the annual inspection of social organisations, the estimated amount of donations received by the three types of social organisations is obtained through measurements and calculations. Taking into account the overall socio-economic development and the development of social organisations, total donations to social organisations in 2018 are estimated to be 70 billion Yuan, of which the donations received by foundations were about 56 billion Yuan.

The growth rate of social organisations has slowed down, but the number of social organisations is still on the rise. In this case, why has the total amount of social donations in China not increased but rather decreased?

Yang Tuan, the editor-in-chief of the Blue Book of Philanthropy (2019), believes that there are two main reasons: on the one hand, with the launching of the official certification of charitable organisations and the guidance of government policies in recent years, the number of donations received directly by government departments has shown a sharp downward trend. Specifically, civil affairs departments have always been in an important position to receive social donations, but in recent years there has also been a downward trend. In 2017, the civil affairs system directly received 2.5 billion Yuan of donations from all walks of life, while in 2018 only about 800 million Yuan of donations were received.

Although they used to be the main recipient of donations, the civil affairs system now receives only around 1% of the country’s total donations. Due to the small amount of donations, the statistic system has gradually neglected the donating announcement. Furthermore a scientific, comprehensive, and credible statistical system for donations received by other organisations has not yet been established, so it is more and more difficult to estimate the total amount of social donations.

On the other hand, China has gradually established a pharmaceutical price benchmark system, and squeezed out artificially inflated prices for medicine. Material donations have accounted for about 30% of total donations over the previous years, out of which 90% were donations of drugs, medical equipment and medical devices. Therefore, the slash in the drug prices has affected the overall statistics on material donations. In a word, the price cut of the medical donations is a major reason for the decline in total donations in 2018.

In 2017 the Chinese government proposed to stop hospitals from self-funding through the sale of medicine, and improve the drug supply security system. This also means that the policy of medicine markups, which was implemented for over 60 years, has formally been withdrawn, thus squeezing out the inflated prices.

Affected by the aforementioned policy, the system of charity federations that mainly receive medicine as material donations will inevitably be affected. Taking part of the donations of medicine received by the China Charity Federation as an example, AstraZeneca-Tagrisso lowered their price per unit of medicine in 2018, reducing the income from their donations by 759 million Yuan this year; Novartis-Tasigna lowered their price per unit of medicine too, and the donation income decreased by 840 million Yuan in 2018; Novartis-Votrient lowered their prices, and their donation income was reduced by 120 million Yuan in 2018; MerckSerono-Erbitux lowered their prices, and their donation income dropped by 220 million Yuan in 2018. In total, donations were reduced by 1.94 billion Yuan. Therefore, the overall amount of donations within the charity system was greatly affected, and its annual income from donations was estimated to be 22 billion Yuan in 2018.

 

Ten years of the Blue Book of Philanthropy

Chinese philanthropy in 2018 revealed a general trend that reflects the different needs of various entities in the specific historical environment of China and has a wide-ranging impact on social life. The country is in the midst of a great change, of a kind which global politics and economics have not seen in 100 years. Multiple uncertainties lead to frequent contradictions in Chinese social life, which grapples with the confrontation between the new and the old social structures accumulated in the 40 years reform and opening-up.

Yang Tuan believes that philanthropy in the future will be tense, more rigid than flexible; more centralised than decentralised, but it will also grow into a dynamic spiritual force with a tremendous impact. More attention should be paid to the power of philanthropic thought, which should explore the relationship between the various subjects of philanthropy and charity in this new era. More importantly, we should reflect on charitable ethics, organisational construction and historical and cultural essence.

In 2009, Yang Tuan led the team that compiled and published the first edition annual Blue Book of Philanthropy. 2019 marks the beginning of the second decade for this project. Yang Tuan stresses that it is of great significance to choose Chengdu as the host in this year, as China’s modern philanthropy reform actually started from the Wenchuan earthquake relief, while in the past decade Chengdu and Sichuan’s philanthropy has continued to develop and innovate.

Over the past decade, the Blue Book of Philanthropy has always been based on the frontline of national reform and development, observing and grasping the growth trends of charity in China, recording and analysing modern charitable changes in the interaction of politics, the economy, society and culture. Over the years it has become an important reference for people from all walks of life to understand the development and characteristics of modern philanthropy in China.

2019慈善蓝皮书》发布:社会捐赠总量下滑26%,志愿服务贡献价值增加50%

 

“2018年,中国慈善在步履维艰中奋力向前,守住了基本面,还屡见新气象。从上往下看,是社会组织强化治理的一年;从下往上看,是慈善伦理呼唤慈善从物化层面回归本心的一年。”杨团在谈到对中国慈善发展的年度观察时说。

2019年7月13日,“2019年《慈善蓝皮书》发布会暨成都公益慈善论坛”在四川成都召开。来自公益慈善、学界、企业、媒体和政府等各界代表近八十人现场参与。论坛由中国社会科学院社会政策研究中心及社会科学文献出版社指导,中国灵山公益慈善促进会与成都公益慈善联合会联合主办,四川红十字基金会等待微笑基金与四川省宜宾唇腭裂慈善医院(宜宾口腔医院)承办,成都市科技新闻学会协办。

 

 

开幕式后,中国社会科学院社会学研究所研究员、社会政策中心顾问、《慈善蓝皮书:中国慈善发展报告》(以下简称,《慈善蓝皮书》)主编杨团正式发布《慈善蓝皮书(2019)》,并回顾了中国慈善在过去一年的大数据与发展态势。

 

盘点2018年中国慈善大数据与发展态势

 

2018年,是中国慈善法治走向规范化、体系化的一年,也是慈善行业遭遇重大挑战的一年。中国慈善在步履维艰中努力向前,不仅守住了基本面,即组织发展总量和慈善捐赠总量持续增长,还在志愿服务、社区社会组织、行业建设、公益创新等领域有所进展。

同时,2018年慈善事业发展亮点频出。其中,由于《志愿服务条例》正式实施,志愿服务制度化建设全面加强。国家将志愿服务纳入国民经济和社会发展总体规划,为志愿服务带来了巨大的发展机遇。2018年,中国志愿者总数约为1.98亿人,占中国大陆人口的14%,比2017年增加4003万人,增长率25%;志愿者贡献价值823.6亿元,较2017年增长了超过50%。

 

 

 

就志愿服务组织数量而言,2018年相较于2013年的73万家增长到143.3万家,数年累积增长率为95%,但是从历年的情况来看,其增长率近年来开始放缓到10%以下,志愿服务组织的生存周期大多在五年以内(60%以上)。

中国社会组织公共服务平台显示,2018年底,中国社会组织总数量超过81.6万个,其中社会团体36.6万个,社会服务机构44.3万个,基金会数量达到7027家。

社区社会组织培育首次成为国家重点政策,政府下文,各地响应。此外,社会组织国际化策略性增强,不但推进联合行动以整合资源、提高效率和影响力,而且突破了跨国别合作,开始注重和尝试区域合作,走向“促进区域命运共同体”的建设参与。

行业建设显示出多年累积的效果,在问责和自律,为资源方提供咨询顾问、教育、能力建设和技术支持,研究和知识管理,交流、传播和信息扩散等方面都有新的突破,尤其出现了对中国社会组织经济规模(N-GDP)研究的新方法和新工具。

 

 

互联网公益创新继续迭代。一方面,互联网公益走向成熟、理性的新阶段;另一方面,新经济公益初现,阿里巴巴将脱贫工作列为集团战略业务,计划之后五年,投入100亿元,并且调动阿里巴巴经济体的每个单元,从电商、生态、教育、女性、健康五大方向设计和探索,帮助贫困地区从根源上着手脱贫。

社会组织国际化策略性增强,不但推进联合行动以整合资源、提高效率和影响力,而且突破了跨国别合作,开始注重和尝试区域合作,走向“促进区域命运共同体”的建设参与。

慈善伦理建设走向聚焦。公益慈善界在“冰花男孩事件”“癌症女童王凤雅事件”中反思弱势儿童的生存与教育困境,以及公益慈善介入的专业性与伦理界限;在接二连三曝光的公益界知名人士涉性骚扰丑闻引发的社会舆论大哗中,反思行业快速发展中沉积下来的“江湖习气”“大佬文化”“山头文化”“男权意识”等现象,反省慈善伦理发展滞后、慈善价值观模糊甚至偏移等问题,将这次公益慈善行业的公信力危机转化为一次行业集体审视、反思、教育与建构的契机,在行业性别友好机制的联合建设上开始了积极行动。

2018年是中国改革开放40年与汶川抗震救灾10年,中国民间公益界启动了各种形式的纪念活动,并系统地反思中国现代慈善探索中的得与失。民间公益力量的兴起,是中国社会的一场伟大变革,它体现了民间诉求与政府改革只有上下合力、不偏废任何一方才能不断进步的实践经验,这也是未来中国慈善成长要遵循的基本准则。

 

中国社会捐赠总量为何不升反降?

 

2018年慈善事业发展亮点频出,但值得注意的是:

社会捐赠总量约1128亿,总量下降26%

全核算社会公益总价值3265.2亿元,增长率下滑

社会组织数量81.6万,增速下滑

 

三类组织总增速在7%左右,其中社会团体基本处于缓慢增长状态,比上年增长3.1%,社会服务机构保持同步增长,比上年度增长10.8%,基金会增速在三类组织中依然最快,但总体呈下滑趋势,比上年度增长11.4%。

 

 

 

《慈善蓝皮书》指出,原因主要在于重监管严登记的政策设计,但是社会组织登记开放的总趋势不会发生改变,而且重点向基层倾斜。由于社会组织年检工作的滞后性,三类社会组织接收社会捐赠额整体采用测算的方式得出估计捐赠接收额。考虑到整体社会经济发展状况及社会组织发展情况,2018年社会组织整体捐赠额预计为700亿元,其中基金会接收捐赠额约为560亿元。

社会组织增速放缓,但数量依然处于上升趋势,既然如此,中国社会捐赠总量为何不升反降? 《慈善蓝皮书:中国慈善发展报告》主编杨团认为,主要原因有两方面:一方面,随着近年慈善组织认定工作的开展以及政府政策引导,政府部门直接接收捐赠数量呈剧烈下滑趋势。民政部门一直是接收社会捐赠的重要阵地,但是近几年随着慈善组织认定工作的开展以及政府政策引导的结果,政府部门直接接收捐赠数量呈剧烈下滑趋势,2017年民政系统直接接收社会各界捐款25亿元,2018年度接收捐赠额仅在8亿元左右。

曾作为捐赠接收主体的民政系统接收捐赠额下滑到占比1%左右,其所建立的统计系统因为数额较小逐步忽略公示,其他主体的捐赠接收情况尚未建立一套科学完整公信力足的统计方法和系统,加之不确定性成为社会各要素的附着特征,因此测算社会捐赠总额也愈加艰难。

另一方面,中国逐步建立了药价基准制度,挤出药价虚高的“水分”。物资捐赠在历年捐赠统计总额中占三成左右,而药品、医疗设备和医疗器具捐赠在其中又占九成左右,因此药品捐赠折价腰斩影响整体物资捐赠统计。医疗捐赠折价下降成为2018年度捐赠总量下降的最主要原因。

2017年,我国提出要全面取消以药养医,健全药品供应保障制度。这也意味着,在我国实行60多年的药品加成政策正式退出历史舞台,从此挤出药价虚高的“水分”。

受此政策影响,物资捐赠接收主要以药品为主的慈善会系统必然受到影响。以中华慈善总会接收的部分药品捐赠为例,阿斯利康项目-泰瑞沙药品2018年单价调减,调减本年捐赠收入7.59亿元;瑞士诺华项目-达希纳药品2018年单价调减,调减本年捐赠收入8.4亿元;瑞士诺华项目-维全特药品2018年单价调减,调减本年捐赠收入1.2亿元;默克雪兰诺项目-爱必妥药品2018年单价调减,调减本年捐赠收入2.2亿元,合计调减19.4亿元。因此2018年慈善会系统的整体捐赠额度受到极大影响,测算其年度捐赠收入为220亿元。

 

《慈善蓝皮书》的十年

 

2018年的中国慈善揭示了在中国特定历史环境中反映各类不同主体的需求而又对社会生活产生广泛影响的一种大趋势,因国家处于全球政治经济百年未有之大变局,多重不确定性引起中国社会生活中矛盾频发,它又与中国改革40年来积累的新旧格局的博弈短兵相接。

杨团认为,未来的慈善是紧张的,刚性多于弹性的,集中多于分散的,同时又将会成长为一种能动的、起着巨大冲击作用的精神力量,应更加重视慈善思想的力量,而慈善思想既要探知各类慈善公益主体在新时期的相互关系,更要在慈善伦理道德、组织建构、历史文化实质的反思。

自2109年,杨团率队启动了年度《慈善蓝皮书》的编著工作,并出版了第一本报告。2019年是《慈善蓝皮书》第二个十年的开始。杨团强调,选择四川成都作为《慈善蓝皮书》新一个十年的第一场发布会的举办地意义重大。她说,中国现代慈善改革其实是从汶川地震救灾开始的,而在过去十年四川成都公益慈善持续发展与创新。

过去十年,《慈善蓝皮书》始终立足国家改革与发展一线,观察和把握中国慈善事业的成长态势,记录与分析在政治、经济、社会、文化交融互动中的现代慈善变革。经历年积累,它已成为社会各界及海内外人士了解和认识中国现代慈善事业发展历程与年度特征的重要参考资料。

 

 

(图文来自中国社会科学院社会政策研究中心及社会科学文献出版社)

 

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