Online Fundraising Strategies for Grassroots NGOs

China Development Brief, No.55 (Fall 2012)

中文 English

Given the many restrictions on charitable fundraising in China, Wu Jiangjiang’s article provides much needed clarity and recommendations on online fundraising strategies for NGOs. Like the China AIDS Walk article, it shows how grassroots NGOs are finding creative ways around government-imposed obstacles to acquire more social resources and legitimacy.

This article is adapted from the China NGO 2.0’s Chengdu Seminar on “Online Fundraising.” For the original PPT course multimedia link, see www.ngo20.org/?page_id=1058. Contact: cathie_yang@126.com

The word “grassroots” in Chinese originally comes from the English word grassroots, and it refers to ordinary people at the grassroots level. Grassroots NGOs usually refers to grassroots NGOs spontaneously organized by grassroots populations. The opposite of grassroots NGOs are “government-run” organizations, which refer to public welfare organizations with a government background.

The most prominent characteristic of grassroots NGOs is their non-governmental quality. The non-governmental nature of grassroots NGOs is an inherent advantage, but it is also the cause of their inherent deficiencies— resource scarce grassroots NGOs almost always face a crisis of survival. How to fundraise is frequently the biggest problem that they face. According to the 2011 China Philanthropy Report, during the 2010 year, only 1.3 percent of donations went to NGOs that were not government-run charities and foundations. Out of this, what can really be used by grassroots NGOs is very miniscule.

Grassroots NGOs are not eligible to engage in public fundraising, lack publicity channels and fundraising staff, and are unable to pay fundraising expenses. The mass media spotlight does not shine in the grassroots NGO corner, and the unknown and obscure presence of grassroots NGOs is often covered up by the attention given to the many government-organized NGOs (GONGOs) and charities. Grassroots NGOs can only look on as these “state-organized” or “quasi-state-run” charitable organizations take all the social resources. Is there a way for the voices of grassroots NGOs to be heard, for them to find resources and and continue with their work? One new path that grassroots NGOs have been moving toward is the internet.

With the rapid development of internet applications domestically in recent years, online donations have also been on the rise. Wide-ranging, far-reaching, low-cost, and powerful interfacing – the miraculous effect of internet communications seems to have opened up a new door for grassroots NGOs. In fact, some successful cases of internet fundraising exist. For instance, the “Guizhou Mountain Area Lunch Program” launched by the grassroots public figure Liang Shuxin (梁树新) in early March of 2011. Through a virtual charity fundraiser, lunch funds were raised for underprivileged children at the Guizhou Province Qianxi County Jianzhong Township Hongban Primary School (贵州黔西县建中乡红板小学). The event raised nearly 700,000 yuan in donations and generated interest in the general public and the government regarding the nutritional issues of rural students. Ultimately, it was also a direct catalyst for the local government’s reform of its rural student nutrition policy.

Can the internet then ultimately provide a solution for grassroots organizations? Moreover, how should grassroots organizations use internet tools to try and obtain the necessary resources for themselves? This issue will be discussed in the pages below with regard to charitable fundraising thresholds, internet fundraising channels, and the operations of grassroots NGOs.

Thresholds for Charitable Fundraising

The internet represents only one communications medium to talk about fundraising, and there are no differences between online and offline entry guidelines. The “high threshold” of fundraising for grassroots organizations consists of two parts: the eligibility to accept donations and the eligibility to publicly fundraise.

According to the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Public Welfare Donations, only three categories of organizations may accept charitable donations: public welfare social organizations (公益性社会团体), nonprofit public service units (公益性非营利的事业单位) and governments at or above the county level and their departments (mainly the Civil Affairs departments). Public welfare organizations may register with the Civil Affairs department as one of three types: social associations (社会团体), private non-enterprise units (民办非企业单位), and foundations (基金会).1 The registration of foundations requires a significant amount of starting capital beyond the reach of ordinary public welfare organizations. As for social organizations, most provinces and cities now require that they must follow the principle of registering only one of each kind of organization within a professional area in the same region. Therefore, most ordinary public welfare organizations that apply for registration are likely to register as a private non-enterprise unit.2  ((Editor’s Note: The author here is pointing out that the private, non-enterprise category has the lowest bar for registration.))

Regardless of the categories, we see that the basic threshold for public welfare organizations to be eligible to accept donations is to register with Civil Affairs.

Public fundraising is the second threshold faced by public welfare organizations. Public fundraising refers to a wide range of fundraising behavior. According to national laws and regulations governing fundraising, the only public welfare organizations that may publicly fundraise are the China Charity Federation (CCF, 慈善会) and its local branches, the Red Cross (红十字会), and foundations that are eligible to publicly fundraise.3  ((Editor’s Note: There are two types of legally registered foundations: public fundraising foundations (公墓基金会) and non-public fundraising foundations (非公墓基金会). The latter are ineligible to engage in public fundraising.))  Public welfare organizations that are ineligible to fundraise publicly cannot engage in public fundraising activities, even if they have been officially registered.4

In the past, fund-raising by many non-governmental public welfare organizations could be put in the “reasonable but unlawful” category. While enforcement agencies might hold a “open one eye, and close the other” attitude toward fundraising by non-governmental public welfare organizations, a tightening of the policy, or the occurrence of legal disputes during the fundraising process, could have legal consequences for fundraisers.

How then can non-governmental public welfare organizations raise money legally? First, register with the Civil Affairs department. Small and medium-sized public welfare organizations may face difficulties when they apply; for example, they may be unable to find the department in charge, have insufficient registration capital or no office space. However, registration can produce great benefits for grassroots NGOs. The organization acquires a legal status for carrying out activities and accepting outside funds. It also becomes eligible to apply to the government for tax deductions for charitable donations, thereby attracting more donations from companies and individuals.5

Next, get around the “public fundraising threshold” by using other means to acquire donor resources. The traditional method is to contact a public fundraising foundation, the China Charity Federation, or the Red Cross, and hold fundraising activities with them serving as the host, or set up a special fund under their supervision and management.6 In addition, there are also some fundraising methods, such as soliciting private donations from companies, carrying out charity auctions, and fundraising through other private channels.

While the barriers to public fundraising for nongovernmental public welfare groups are high, possibilities for overcoming those barriers exist. This article will describe how non-governmental public welfare organizations, especially small and medium-sized grassroots NGOs, can use online tools to carry out fundraising.

Internet Fundraising Channels and Strategies for Grassroots NGOs

1. E-Commerce

Grassroots NGOs are not eligible to solicit contributions from the public, but charity sales directed at the general public may be carried out. Traditional charity auctions are often subjected to the complications of venue, time, limited number of buyers, and high transaction costs and are usually just one-time events with limited sales.

E-commerce refers to transactional activities carried out through the use of computers and electronic communications technology. E-commerce is aimed at a larger group of consumers, not subject to time constraints, enjoys low transaction costs, provides personalized service, and is easy to manage. E-commerce in China has experienced explosive growth in recent years. The Internet Data Center’s (IDC) data show that online transactions  in 2011 reached 784.93 billion yuan.  Taobao (淘宝) alone reached 100 billion yuan in sales. According to iResearch (iResearch) statistics, in 2011 the number of China’s online shoppers reached 187 million people. E-commerce has caught the public eye, built up a large user base and a new generation of online consumer. Therefore public welfare organizations might try tapping into this very popular channel as a way to increase their donations.

Taobao’s Online Charity Store (淘宝公益网店)

Starting in 2010, the largest Chinese e-commerce platform Taobao launched a charity platform service directed at NGOs. Like all C2C (Customer to Customer) vendors, public welfare organizations (including those registered as businesses and unregistered ones) verified by Taobao can set up their own charity stores on the Taobao website. Organizations eligible to do public fundraising can also use Alipay (支付宝) to engage in public fundraising.

The goods in Taobao’s Charity Store can be supplies, souvenirs produced by the organization (such as organizational badges, specially-made green environmental bags, t-shirts, calendars), as well as items from the beneficiaries helped by those organizations (such as a thank you postcard). The value of the product does not have to be the same as the sales price, and in circumstances where the buyer and seller see this as a charitable contribution, then these sales are similar to soliciting donations.

The greatest difficulty in running Taobao’s Charity Store lie in three areas. One is the lack of credibility and influence of the public welfare organizations and lack of interest in the Taobao Shop. A second is a lack of customer service personnel and capacity. To address the latter problems, some grassroots organizations have begun recruiting volunteers who can spend a long time waiting in front of the computer to provide customer service.

2. Corporate Support

In recent years, domestic companies are increasingly acquiring a sense of social responsibility, and showing more willingness to invest in philanthropy. In 2011, the “Guo Meimei incident” significantly reduced the confidence people have in government-run charities. Some companies as a result have begun to adjust their traditional corporate social responsibility (CSR) model, and make small donations to grassroots organizations. One study revealed that 18 percent of the companies surveyed strongly agreed with the statement “if the company cooperates with public welfare organizations, it will be able to better achieve certain goals.” In addition, 64 percent of the companies believed that public welfare organizations play an important role in a company’s success.7

Accepting directed corporate contributions can remedy the public fundraising difficulties and the lack of funding facing grassroots NGOs. Companies can provide not only funds, but also supplies, volunteer services, and technologies in their own field. Companies, especially local ones, have a substantial resource base waiting to be tapped by public welfare organizations. The potential for cooperation between public welfare organizations and companies is substantial.

China’s NGO 2.0 (中国公益2.0) Information Map Platform

NGO 2.0 (中国公益 2.0) is a technology-based NGO support organization whose mission is to improve the network application capabilities of small and medium-sized public welfare organizations and their ability to use new media. One of their long-term goals is to help China’s grassroots NGOs access corporate resources through network technologies as well as offline activities. For this purpose, the project team developed the “NGO 2.0 Information Map Platform” (www.ngo20map.com). The platform is oriented toward public welfare organizations and is open to companies which operate CSR programs targeting public welfare organizations. Registered public welfare organization users can publish on the map their organization’s charitable projects and charity needs, and corporate users can publish their CSR projects and resources. Registered users and published projects are all visually represented on the “charity map.”

Grassroots organizations can use the search function in the NGO 2.0 Information Map platform to search in a specific sector, or for corporate CSR resources within a specific region. They can also search for information on partner organizations similar to their own. The platform also publishes a series of best practices for cooperation between public welfare organizations and CSR departments. Organizations without cooperation experience can get inspired, and in turn, devise a project and strategy for partnering with enterprises.

Tencent’s Micro-love (腾讯微爱) Project

The Tencent Micro-love project (http://gongyi.qq.com/wgy) is an online charity product launched by the Tencent Charity Foundation (腾讯公益慈善基金会) in 2011 to provide long-term funding support and capacity building for non-governmental public welfare organizations and university student associations. Its core mechanism is funding provided by the Tencent Charity Foundation to projects carried out by public welfare organizations or university associations. Netizens participate and make the final call which public welfare projects hoping for support have funds donated.

Public welfare organizations with a strong project plan, but lacking the funding for implementation can submit project plans to the Tencent Charity Foundation and apply for the Micro-Love Dream Fund(微爱梦想基金). Public welfare projects need to get pre-approval, but even more importantly, they need to gain acknowledgment from Tencent netizens. Public welfare organizations must announce their project goals, planning, budget, implementation of programs, and fund-raising amount on the Micro-love Dream platform, and then use the Tencent microblog to generate publicity for the project, calling on netizens to support them by forwarding the microblog. Each time it is forwarded by a netizen, 0.6 yuan of micro-love capital is raised for the project. Public projects that reach the predetermined fundraising amount within the specified time will receive full funding from the Tencent Charity Foundation. The maximum amount of funding for a charity project is presently 50,000 yuan.

The Micro-love Plan is a classic example of collaboration between grassroots NGOs and Internet companies. On one hand, the Tencent Micro-love Dream Fund provides a fundraising platform for grassroots charity projects. On the other, Tencent’s own multi-media tools, and its  extensive user base has brought more public attention to grassroots NGOs. It is also more applicable to fundraising for small public service projects that need to be implemented in a short time frame and get more public exposure.

3. Third Party Platforms

Third-party platforms refer to supporting organizations that makes use of networks to raise resources for NGOs. This category of organization is usually classified as a social enterprise; they use a business model to engage in online fundraising, and donate the funds raised or their profits, minus the necessary operating expenses, to public welfare organizations. Public welfare organizations that cooperate with third-party platforms can make use of their operational and management advantages in fundraising to obtain resources for themselves.

Buy42 Network (善淘网)

Buy42 (善淘网, www.buy42.com) is China’s first online charity store. The meaning behind the domain name “buy42” is to “buy for two,” that is, to encourage people to purchase goods while at the same time feeling good about helping others.

Buy42 has already formed partnerships with 17 public organizations, and the total amount of its charitable assistance has exceeded 600,000 yuan. By the end of 2011, Buy42 had helped more than 22 charity projects. In the “Green Children Quarterly” project, for instance, Buy42 raised 34,417 yuan to provide each of 3441 pupils in Hebei, Henan, Anhui and other impoverished regions noteworthy publications.

4. Donations Within Private Circles

The target of public fundraising is an unspecified social group, while non-public (or private) fundraising activities occur within a specific group. The current law on the scope of public fundraising does not provide specific guidelines, but according to fundraising regulations introduced by some localities, the solicitation of contributions from one’s community or a specific group of people in one’s work unit does not fall under the category of public fundraising8. By extension, fundraising specifically targeting niche communities in the real-name system network can be considered as not in violation of the regulations.9

One individual who heads a grassroots NGO told the author in an interview that when the fundraising amount is not large, he will usually split up the needed amount into small equal portions, and then announce the call for assistance in multiple public welfare QQ groups, calling on people within the groups to make small pledges. Because these people are all in public welfare circles, they are especially caring and happy to give. Moreover, a donation of a few dollars will not impose a burden. In the words of this NGO leader, “Charity should not be limited to the wealthy, and those with low incomes who want to give should also enjoy the opportunity to participate in philanthropy through small donations.”

Future Prospects

The internet has made it more convenient for grassroots NGOs to raise resources. But given the restrictive conditions for registering as a public welfare organization and for public fundraising, grassroots organizations face a major disadvantage compared to their government-run counterparts. Therefore, the former need to make creative use of internet fundraising to make up for this disadvantage.

The good news is that the policy environment has been recently relaxed. On May 1, 2013, the Guangzhou City Fundraising Regulations《广州市募捐条例》made improving fundraising transparency a requirement and at the same time lowered the barrier to entry for public fundraising; this is the first time that NGOs registered as private non-enterprise units (民非) can expressly carry out fundraising. On July 1 of this year, Guangzhou also lowered the registration barrier for social organizations. With the exception of certain cases, social organizations will be able to directly registered. Other areas such as Beijing have also introduced similarly relaxed initiatives.10 These measures reflect the gradual opening up of the policy space for grassroots organizations, and a better fundraising environment for grassroots organizations. The “grassroots” that survived in the cracks in the past have developed a strong will to live. We have reason to believe that, once they have been given a wider space to exist, the public welfare sector in China will surely usher in a new tomorrow.


  1. Editor’s Note: Social associations are generally membership associations, while private non-enterprise units are generally service providers such as private schools and health clinics. 

  2. Wang Shiqiang. The Chinese Nonprofit Organization Registration Strategy. www.chinadevelopmentbrief.org.cn/ngo_talkview.php?id=3480, 2012-03-01 

  3. The Guangzhou City Fundraising Regulations went into effect on May 1, 2012, and the Regulations permit local non-public fundraising, public welfare organizations that meet the requirements to apply for public fundraising qualification from the civil affairs department. The move is the first of its kind in the country. 

  4. Editor’s Note: Here the author is referring to those categories of legally registered social organizations that are not allowed to engage in public fundraising: social associations; private, non-enterprise units, and non-public fundraising foundations. In other words, the large majority of public welfare social organizations in China may not engage in public fundraising. Ironically, the CCF is registered as a social association (shehui tuanti) but because it was established by the Ministry of Civil Affairs, it enjoys a special status not given to any other registered social association. The Red Cross is governed by a separate law under the State Council and is thus not required to register. 

  5. Editor’s Note: Generally speaking, registering with Civil Affairs does not automatically bring tax benefits. After registering, the NGO must still apply to the tax department for tax deductions. 

  6. Editor’s Note: A number of NGOs and even private foundations have been able to set up a special fund under a public fundraising foundation or the Red Cross. Using this special fund, they then engage in public fundraising in return for paying a management fee to the public foundation. The best-known case was that of the One Foundation when it was still registered as a non-public fundraising foundation and had a special fund under the China Red Cross. In December of 2010, it succeeded in registering as a public fundraising foundation in Shenzhen. 

  7. Ogilvy Earth and Millward Brown. The Vision of Cooperation Between Corporate Social Responsibility and Public Welfare Organizations White Paper. www.millwardbrown.cn / article / NGO partnerships.pdf 2012-04 

  8. For example, Article 2 of the Guangzhou City Fundraising Regulations: “These regulations apply to fundraising organizations within the city’s jurisdiction that fundraise from the general public, and whose property is used for public welfare and related management activities. For fundraising activities carried out to help specific targeted communities and directed towards a given work unit or a specific group of people in a given community, these regulations do not apply.” 

  9. Editor’s Note: The “real-name system” is an online network in which users who want to start a blog, website, or other online service, are required to register their real identification. The Chinese government is currently considering implementing a national real-name system. 

  10. Editor’s Note: Direct registration here means the registration process would be simplified. Organizations would be able to register with the Civil Affairs bureau without first getting sponsorship from a “professional supervising unit” which would normally be a government agency. While these measures have been carried out in certain cities, they are reserved for certain categories of social organizations and their implementation in places such as Beijing has been slow. 

草根公益的网络募捐攻略
吴江江
中国发展简报2012年秋季刊
“草根”一词来源于英文的grass roots,指来自基层的普通民众。草根公益通常指的是基层民众自发组建的公益组织。而与草根对应的则是“官办”,是指拥有政府背景的公益组织。
草根公益最大的特征是民间性。民间性既是草根公益的固有优势,也使其具有先天的不足——资源匮乏的草根公益组织几乎总是面临着生存危机。如何筹款,往往是 它们所面临的最大难题。根据《2011中国慈善捐助报告》,2010年度捐赠只有1.3%流向了官办慈善和基金会之外的社团、民非和福利院,而其中真正能为草根公益组织所用的更是微乎其微。
 没有公募资质、缺乏宣传渠道、缺少募捐人力、无力支付募捐成本……大众传媒的聚光灯投射不到草根的角落,草根们默默无名的身影往往被众官办慈善的万千光辉 所掩盖,只能眼睁睁地看着这些“国营”或“准国营”的慈善机构垄断社会资源。是否有一种方法让草根们也能发出自己的呼声、为草根公益谋得安身立命之资呢? 草根公益人的目光不约而同地投向了传统媒体之外的新领域——互联网。
随着近年来互联网应用在国内迅猛发展,网络募捐水涨船高。广范围、高到达、低成本、强互动——网络传播的神奇效应似乎为草根公益者们打开了一扇全新的大 门。事实上也确实存在一些网络筹款的成功案例,比如民间公益人士梁树新2011年3月初发起的“贵州山区午餐计划”,以虚拟义卖的方式为贵州黔西县建中乡 红板小学的贫困孩子募集午餐资金,最终不仅获得近70万捐助,更调动起广大公众以及政府对农村学生营养问题的重视,最终还直接催化了地方政府农村学生营养改善政策的出台。
那么,互联网究竟是不是草根们的福音呢?草根组织又该如何运用互联网工具为自己谋求必要的资源?下文分别从公益募捐的门槛、草根公益组织网络募捐的渠道和运营等方面来谈谈这个问题。
公益募捐的门槛
 网络只是一种传播手段,论及募捐,网上与网下的准入规则并无差别。草根组织募捐的“高门槛”有两点:获捐资质和公募资质。
根据《中华人民共和国公益事业捐赠法》,可以接受公益捐赠的机构只有三类:公益性社会团体、公益性非营利的事业单位和县级以上人民政府及其部门 (主要是民政部门)。公益性组织可以以社会团体、民办非企业单位(民非)和基金会这三类组织的名义申请民政注册。其中注册基金会要求的巨额原始基金非普通公益组织可企及,而目前大多数省市都规定注册社会团体须遵循同一区域内业务领域只能注册一家类似组织的原则,因此普通公益组织申请注册最可能获批的是民 非。[1]
说到这儿,我们可以发现,公益组织获得法定的受捐资质的最基本门槛是拥有“公益性社会团体”的合法身份,也就是能获得正式的民政注册。
公募是公益组织所面临的第二道门槛。公募指面向不特定的社会公众广泛募集捐款的行为。根据国家法规对募捐主体的规定,可以公募的公益性社会团体只有各级慈善会、红十字会和有公募资质的基金会。[2] 没有公募资质的公益组织,即使已经正式注册,也不能面向公众开展募捐活动。
 可见,过去很多民间公益组织的募捐行为很多都属于“合理不合法”的范畴。虽然眼下执法机关可能对民间公益募捐抱“睁只眼闭只眼”的态度,但一旦政策收紧或者在募捐过程中出现法律纠纷,则可能会给募捐者带来法律责任。
那民间公益组织应当如何合法地募集款项呢?首先是尽可能争取在民政部门登记注册。中小型公益组织申请时可能面临重重困难,比如找不到主管单位、注册资金不 足、没有办公场所等等。但一旦正式注册,将能为草根公益组织带来极大益处。一方面可以使组织获得开展活动以及接收外部经费的合法身份,获得社会认可;另一 方面组织也拥有了向政府申请公益捐赠税前扣除的资格,可以吸引更多的企业和个人加入捐款行列。
其次是规避“公募门槛”,用其他途径获取捐赠资源。传统的方法是联络公募基金会、慈善总会或红十字会,以它们为主体联手举办募捐活动,或者设立专项基金,然后接受其监督和管理;此外还有一些筹款方式,如争取企业的定向捐助、开展义卖、内部筹款等等。
公募或许是民间公益难以跨越的高门槛,不过我们或许可以另辟募款之蹊径,寻找替代办法。本文将就民间公益组织,特别是中小草根公益组织如何利用网络工具开展募捐这一问题展开叙述。
草根公益组织网络募捐的渠道攻略
1. 电子商务渠道——网络为媒,变捐为卖
没有资质的草根公益组织不能面向大众劝募,但可以面向大众开展义卖。然而,传统的公益义卖往往受场地、时间、面向对象有限、买卖成本高等问题的困扰,通常也只是一次性的,销售额有限。
电子商务是指利用计算机和电子通信技术开展的交易活动。电子商务的特点有:面向的消费群体更广阔、不受时空限制、商品流通和商品交易成本低、可实现个性化服务、交易管理便利等。近年来电子商务在国内呈现爆炸似的发展。互联网数据中心(IDC)数据显示,2011年中国网民在线购物交易额达到7849.3亿元,仅淘宝商城(天猫)的交易额就达到了1000亿元的规模。而据艾瑞市场咨询(iResearch)统计,2011年中国网购用户规模达1.87亿人。电子商务日益聚焦大众视线,业已积累起庞大的用户基础,更培养出新一代消费者网络消费习惯,因此有条件的公益组织不妨借助电子商务这座巨人的肩膀为自己的义卖添力。
淘宝公益网店
国内最大的电子商务平台淘宝自2010年起面向NGO推出了公益平台服务。正如所有的C2C(Customer to Customer, 即消费者间)卖家一样,凡通过淘宝认证的公益组织都可以在淘宝网开设自己的公益店铺并开展义卖活动,有公募资质的机构还可以利用支付宝直接募捐。
淘宝店义卖的商品可以是捐助给组织的物资、组织生产的纪念品(如机构的徽章、特制的环保袋、T恤衫、台历等),以及来自受益人的物品(比如一张感谢明信 片)。可能物品价值和销售价格并不相等,但是在买卖双方默认是公益捐助的情况下,这种不等值的义卖能起到类似劝募的效果。
公益淘宝店经营的最大困难,一是公益组织自身公信力、影响力不足,淘宝店铺无人问津;二是客服人手不够或者能力不足。针对后者,一些草根组织已经开始招募可以长时间守候在电脑前的志愿者远程提供客服。
2. 企业援助——伙伴对接,公益同行
近些年来,国内企业的社会责任意识日益觉醒,越来越多的企业愿意在慈善事业中投入更多力量。然而2011年 的“郭美美事件”明显降低了国人对官办慈善机构的信心。一些企业开始调整传统的企业社会责任(CSR)模式,直接以小额捐款和其他资源来捐助草根组织的做法已经开始出现。一项调查显示,18%的企业非常赞同“如果与公益组织合作,公司就能更好地达成某些目标”,另外有 64% 的企业认为,在实现企业成功的过程中,公益组织能起到重要作用。[3]
接受企业的定向捐助可以弥补草根公益组织公募困难、资金不足的缺陷。而企业可以提供的不只是资金,还包括物资、志愿者服务、自身领域内的先进技术等。企业,特别是本地企业,潜在的慈善资源是广阔的,有待于公益组织们发掘调动,公益组织与企业合作的未来前景十分远大。
中国公益2.0地图信息平台
中国公益 2.0是一家技术型的NGO支持机构,其使命是提高中国中小型公益组织的网络应用能力与新媒体使用能力,长期目标之一是通过网络技术和网下活动帮助中国草根公益组织与企业资源对接。项目组为此开发了“中国公益2.0地图信息平台”(www.ngo20map.com)。该平台面向公益组织以及有针对公益组织的CSR计划的企业开放注册。注册的公益组织用户可以在地图上发布本组织的公益项目和公益需求,企业用户则可以发布本企业的社会责任项目和资源。注册用户和发布项目都在“公益地图”上直观呈现。
草根组织可以通过中国公益2.0地图信息平台方便地通过搜索查询指定领域或指定地域内的企业CSR资源,也可以查询与本组织相关的伙伴组织的信息。平台还发布了一系列公益组织和企业社会责任部门的最佳合作案例,没有合作经验的组织可以从中得到启发,进而设计与企业合作的项目和策略。
腾讯微爱
腾讯微爱(http://gongyi.qq.com/wgy)是腾讯公益慈善基金会于 2011 年推出的长期对民间公益组织和高校社团进行资金帮扶和能力建设的互联网公益产品。其核心机制是由腾讯公益慈善基金会出资、公益组织或高校社团出项目、网友参与做主,将资金捐赠给希望支持的公益项目。
有好的项目策划但缺乏实施资金的公益组织可以向腾讯公益基金会提交项目计划,申请微爱梦想基金。要获得资助,公益项目不仅需要获得预先审批,更需要获得腾讯网友们的认可。公益组织需要在微爱梦想平台上公布自己项目的目标、策划、预算、实施方案、募资额度等,然后再用腾讯微博为项目作宣传,号召网友们以微博 转发的方式支持自己,而网友们的每次转发都能为该项目募集0.6元的微爱基金。在规定时间内达到预定募资额度的公益项目将获得腾讯公益慈善基金会的全额资助。目前公益项目资助的上限为5万元。
微爱计划是草根公益组织和互联网企业合作的经典范例。一方面腾讯公司提供的微爱梦想基金为草根公益项目敞开了募资的门户,另一方面腾讯自有的多种媒体工具和广大的用户基础也给草根公益组织带来了更多的公众关注,较适用于为实行时限短、有较好公众展示效应的小型公益项目募资。
3. 第三方平台——他山之石,借力而为
此处的第三方平台指利用网络为NGO募集物质资源的支持型机构。该类机构通常属于社会型企业,它们利用先进的商业模式在线筹资,并将所筹资金或者扣除必要运营费用外的利润捐赠给与之合作公益组织。公益组织与第三方平台合作,可以借助对方在筹资方面的营运管理优势,为自己获取资源。
善淘网
善淘网(www.buy42.com)是中国第一家在线慈善商店。域名“buy42”的寓意是“buy for two”,即鼓励人们在购买商品的同时助人为乐。
目前善淘网已经和17个公益组织达成合作关系,公益援助金额超过60万。至2011年底,善淘援助的公益项目已超过22个。例如在“绿孩子季刊”项目中,善淘完成筹资34417元,为3441名河北、河南、安徽等贫困地区的每位小学生筹得了一本优秀刊物。
4. 圈内募捐——公益互助,聚沙成塔
公募的对象是不特定的社会公众,而在小范围内特定人群中开展的募捐行为则非公募范畴。当前法律对公募对象的范围并未作具体规定,但是根据部分地区出台的地方性募捐条例,一般面向本社区或者本单位特定人群开展的劝募都不归属公募范畴[5]。推及网络,我们可以认为在实名制网络小众社区里为特定对象募捐,并不违反法规。
一位草根公益组织的负责人接受采访时告诉笔者,当募捐总额不大时,他通常会把所需款额均等地划分成小份,然后在多个公益QQ群里发布求助信息,号召群内人士小额认捐。因为圈内都是公益圈里的人士,比较有爱心,乐于捐助。另外,几块钱的数额也不会给人造成负担。“慈善并不是有钱人们的专利,小额募捐可以让有爱心的穷人也享有参与慈善的机会。”这位公益人士说。
未来展望
网络为草根公益组织筹募资源提供了一定便利,但是在公益准入和公募的双重“高门槛”的限制条件下,草根们和官办慈善机构竞争慈善资源,还是存在很大的劣势,因此,更应当巧妙地运用互联网筹款工具去弥补这个劣势。
可喜的是,近来政策环境有所松动。今年5月1日开始实施的《广州市募捐条例》,在要求提高募捐透明化的同时降低了公募的准入门槛,首次规定获得了许可的民非也可以开展募捐。今年7月1日, 广州为社会组织松绑,除了特别规定和特别领域,社会组织可以直接登记注册。北京等其他地区也有类似的放宽举措出台。这些措施,使人看到政策空间对草根组织的逐步开放,这也将为草根组织的筹款环境带来积极影响。过去在夹缝中求生存的“草根儿”练就出了顽强的生命“韧劲”。我们有理由相信,它们一旦被赋予更广 阔的生存空间,中国的公益界必将迎来清新碧绿的明天。
(作者系中国科技大学科技传播与科技政策系在读研究生,目前是中国公益2.0地图管理的志愿者。本文改编自“中国NGO20成都研讨会”培训内容——“网络筹款”,原课程PPT课件链接请见 www.ngo20.org/?page_id=1058  。联系:cathie_yang@126.com)
[1] 王世强.中国非营利组织登记注册攻略. [EB/OL]. www.chinadevelopmentbrief.org.cn/ngo_talkview.php?id=3480, 2012-03-01
[2] 2012年5月1日起《广州市募捐条例》开始施行,《条例》允许本地区内符合要求的非公募公益组织,向民政部门申请公募资格。该项举动在国内尚属首创。
[3] Ogilvy Earth and Mill ward Brown.企业社会责任和公益组织合作的远景白皮书. [EB/OL]. www.millwardbrown.cn/article/NGO partnerships.pdf, 2012-04
[4] Ogilvy Earth and Mill ward Brown.企业社会责任和公益组织合作的远景白皮书. [EB/OL]. www.millwardbrown.cn/article/NGO partnerships.pdf, 2012-04
[5] 例如《广州市募捐条例》第二条:“本条例适用于募捐组织在本市行政区域内面向社会公众公开募集财产用于公益事业及相关的管理活动。为了帮助特定对象,面向本单位或者本社区特定人群开展的募捐活动,不适用本条例。”

The author is currently a graduate student at the China Science and Technology University Department of Science and Technology Communication and Science and Technology Policy (中国科技大学科技传播与科技政策系) and a volunteer with the China NGO2.0 project.

Translated by Katie Xiao

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