The Secret Behind the Numbers: An Analysis of NGO Staff Recruitment

China Development Brief, No. 51 (Fall 2011)

中文 English

Introduction: The following article is a very interesting and valuable analysis of changes in NGO staff recruitment using data from CDB’s job posting service which is widely regarded as one of the most comprehensive, if not the most comprehensive, in the public interest sector. As the authors show, the numbers provide further confirmation of the growth, mainstreaming and professionalization of the NGO sector, particularly when compared with a similar statistical analysis that China Development Brief carried out in 2005.  

In recent years, the public interest sector has entered a rapid period of development. [Editor’s Note: As in all of our translations, the term “public interest” is used synonymously with “philanthropy”, “charity”, “non-profit” and NGO.]  An analysis of the human resource needs of NGOs can reveal useful findings. For this report, we compiled, summarized, and analyzed all NGO recruitment ads posted on the China Development Brief website (www.cdb.org.cn) over a one-year period (August 1st, 2010 to July 31st, 2011). The positions advertised come from domestic and international NGOs, foundations, the United Nations and multilateral aid groups, bilateral aid groups, in-house corporate social responsibility (CSR) positions in private enterprises, and CSR consulting agencies.

First, we would like to provide a note on our methods.  Because of recruitment challenges and/or high job-turnover rates, a few organizations posted advertisements for the same vacancy multiple times.  In our analysis, we exclude duplicate vacancy advertisements.  Also, job posts found on the CDB website and on similar public philanthropy platforms only represent a figurative “drop in the sea.”  Thus, this report only reflects a tiny facet of total demand for human resources in the public philanthropy sector.  In the future, we would like to carry out statistical analysis of web-based data at regular intervals, with the goal of providing a useful reflection of the public sector’s development.

The “Rise” of Domestic Organizations

Of the 2,133 vacancies posted, domestic organizations accounted for more than two-thirds of the total, a somewhat unexpected finding. Back in 2005, when CDB conducted its first-ever analysis of job postings on its website over a three year period (2002-2005), international organizations dominated, with very few domestic groups posting vacancy ads.  (You can view a Chinese version of the article here).

Now, more and more domestic organizations are using an open recruitment process.  This not only reflects the growth in the number of domestic organizations, but also demonstrates a definitive change in their management of human resources.   Even a few government-backed foundations, which previously had very little engagement with CDB, have started to use CDB’s website to post job vacancies.  These organizations are now using more open recruitment channels, moving away from the old, closed-door process in which posts were filled by candidates recommended from within a small group.  Looking at the situation now, there are three times as many job-postings in 2010-2011 as there were in 2002-2005,  a clear sign of the nonprofit sector’s growth.

This year, the aggregate number of jobs posted by the ten domestic organizations most active in recruiting (437) surpassed that of the top ten most active international organizations (362).  This suggests that the demand by domestic organizations for human resources has risen.  It is also worth noting that of the ten most active domestic institutions, four are social work organizations. Three of the four social work organizations are based in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, two cities where local governments have expanded funding, streamlined registration procedures and introduced local policies to encourage the development of social work agencies.  In addition, it should be noted that job posts for the top two NGOs—Non-Profit Incubator (恩派NPI) and Huiling (慧灵)—are not limited to Beijing, as they have positions in other parts of the country.


Of course, the top ten international organizations, including World Vision (宣明会) and Oxfam Hong Kong (香港乐施会), also have vacancies in multiple locations, including both local offices and project sites.
Comparing domestic and international organizations, we find that the former account for 6 of the top 10 most active recruiting organizations, and that they also occupy the top two spots.

Where NGOs Like to CongregateIt is not difficult to imagine, that when it comes to job availability, Beijing tops the list. Beijing still holds the advantage as a place to advocate for policies and communicate with those both outside and within China. Beijing’s NGO job market is the largest, and highly suitable for open recruitment.

Outside of Beijing, out of the dozens of provinces and cities, Guangdong, Shanghai, and Shenzhen take the next three spots. These economically developed coastal areas are also known for more innovative management and a more liberal environment for experimentation. The magnetic pull and open nature of these cities encourages the development of local organizations and attracts organizations from other provinces to register and carry out projects there.

Yunnan and Sichuan remain well-established destinations for NGOs, providing over a hundred new job positions. As relatively underdeveloped, inland provinces, Sichuan and Yunnan have a long history of producing and nurturing NGOs in a range of fields. The 2008 Sichuan earthquake led to the creation of multiple disaster relief and reconstruction organizations, while the 2011 Yunnan Yingjiang earthquake triggered coordinated NGO rescue responses. Three years later, the organizations still active in the former disaster zones are starting to realize the need to work together for the purpose of creating long-term reserves of experience and capacity in disaster relief.

Meanwhile, the nine overseas job postings, while a small number, could be a sign of greater change.  These international development positions, directed specifically towards Chinese nationals, indicate recognition of the potential and value of the Chinese workforce. In the vast majority of cases, these vacancies have been posted by international organizations. The fact that Chinese candidates are now being targeted for international posts does not necessarily imply that China has successful development experiences that should be replicated internationally, nor does it necessarily imply that Chinese NGOs are shifting to a more global focus.  Instead, the primary reason for the appearance of these international job postings lies in China’s emergence as a country with growing international influence.  International organizations increasingly need to understand important Chinese figures that are working at a transnational level, such as those working in cross-regional cooperation on human trafficking or eco-conservation issues. The second reason for these job listings is that, after many years of working in China, international development groups have cultivated a corps of Chinese with international perspectives and familiarity with international organizations. Finally, Chinese businesses are also being targeted by development organizations as an important source of funding.

There are also more subtle changes taking place related to China’s growing internationalization.  Compassion for Migrant Children (CMC, 打工子弟爱心会), in February 2011, posted a job on the CDB website seeking a manager for a program establishing community centeres in Nepal and Bangladesh.  CMC was created by an American named Jonathan Hursh.  Headquartered in China, this organization seeks to build community centeres to provide services for migrant children, youth, and the community.  Up to now, it has established community centeres for migrant workers in several Beijing districts in addition to a community centere in Shanghai’s Minhang District.  It is currently hoping to apply its China experience to Nepal and Bangladesh in the form of a Chinese outreach program.  In the spring of 2011, CDB reported that the UK Volunteer Service Overseas (VSO) organization was recruiting its first batch of Chinese volunteers to work in Africa.  It is also reported that the China Foundation for Poverty Alleviation (中国扶贫基金会) will recruit 8-10 medical volunteers to improve maternal and child health in the Sudan, borrowing from its own 10-year domestic program on maternal and child health.

Even Good Wine Needs to be Advertised

In December 2010, Horizon (零点集团) released a report titled “An Investigation on the Development and Needs of China’s Public Interest Workforce” 《中国公益人才发展现状及需求调研报告》.The report divided NGO job postings into three categories: The first consists of developmental posts, including public relations, fundraising, and research. Those posts are not directly related to project implementation, but are critical to ensuring their sustainable development. The second category consists of operational posts (e.g. project operation and implementation). The third category involves finance, administration, and IT support, which provide a foundation for the organization’s management and operations. This categorization of posts aids in the understanding of how NGOs prioritize their various functions.

The CDB statistics reveal over 1,505 job posts falling in the operational category, which ranks first overall and represents over 70 percent of the total postings.  Meanwhile, administrative, finance, human resources, and various other support positions were second, at 305 postings or 14 percent of the total.  Support staff are needed once organizations reach a certain size.

It is also worth noting that the public relations category included 141 job postings, coming in third.  The last few years have seen NGOs placing greater importance on this function. This trend is likely related to the growing popularity of public interest issues, as well as the influence of the corporate sector. As domestic funding grows, and the public and media become more interested in public interest causes, an organization’s brand name becomes increasingly important. Transparency and brand name, and not small-scale internal evaluations, are now important considerations when fundraising.

The public interest sector has also been influenced by business principles.  Some organizations even give corporate-sounding names to their positions, like “Sales and Brand Promotion,” highlighting the importance of brand-name construction.  For example, Shanghai Cherished Dream Foundation (上海真爱梦想基金会) is a group guided by corporate principles.  This organization groups IT, fundraising, and public relations functions together, has sales and brand management positions,  and combines media relations, monitoring, internet management and sales, public brand promotion and fundraising into a single body.  In April of 2010, the Cherished Dream Foundation pioneered a technique common to publicly-held companies, releasing an annual report and accepting supervision from the public and donors.  This is an example of the effective application of corporate practices to the public interest field.

The Guizhou Pensioners for Rural Development Foundation (贵州薪火乡村发展基金会) was co-founded by entrepreneurs and professionals out of concern for rural education, folk culture, and health. In April, they posted positions for Brand and IT Managers responsible for external communication, media relations, crisis response, as well as internet, blog and micro-blog (Weibo) site management. Under NPI, the Shanghai-based NGO, the Shanghai United Foundation is in the process of recruiting a Resource Development Manager, who will also be responsible for fundraising and promoting brand image. In fact, advocacy organizations with a long history, like Greenpeace, have long had full-time staff with media experience who are responsible for public relations. In addition, they have also used internet-based approaches to pressure certain companies. Meanwhile, domestic organizations have only recently begun to stress the importance of external communications. The Chinese have a saying that “bars serving good wine can be located in inconvenient locations,” but they also have a saying that “even the best wine needs some advertising.”

Professional Specialization and Internship Alternatives

The development of NGOs has also seen a trend towards specialization and professionalization.  The operational, support, and development positions described above are being further broken down, driving the increasingly specific demands in the job market for professional talent. Wide ranging positions in legal defense,  micro-finance, investment, social work and psychological services, environmental protection, IT support, and finance and accounting embody how NGOs are increasing looking for candidates with specialized educational backgrounds.

Meanwhile, a few grassroots organizations are lacking in both human resources and financing.  They make up for this through open recruitment of interns and volunteers, entrusting them with substantial responsibilities and a variety of complex functions. These organizations are able to attract talent, not through monetary compensation, but by providing meaningful work experience.

For Grassroots Organizations, The Internet is an Opportunity

In addition to traditional media, information dissemination has found other outlets in micro-blogging and blogs. So long as they invest time and energy in understanding internet-based forms of media, organizations—whether or not they have financial resources—can stand on equal footing. Several organizations have singled out these prominent positions and have assigned employees to write blogs and use online social-networking platforms. This represents an opportunity for grassroots organizations.

Take IT, for example, which is a technical job. The primary responsibilities for those in IT are site maintenance, webpage design, and program coding. The China Charity and Donation Information Center (中民慈善信息中心) has established itself as an information resource center. In April, they posted a position for a chief technology officer, responsible for both the development of their information platform as well as backend support. At the same time, they also wanted to recruit two R&D engineers to develop a system to analyze, plan, design, and develop software. These positions require a high level of specialization in IT and are not suitable for outsourcing. At first glance, it seems as if a software company, and not an NGO, is recruiting. This is just one case.

Of course, there are also grassroots organizations unaware of the importance of hiring professional staff to perform supporting functions, or which lack the financial resources to do so.  It would be even more difficult for them to hire IT, fundraising, or research staff. Their response is to either do without IT support or outsource those support services. Fundraising and public relations responsibilities are often taken on by the director or other senior staff.
Of all positions, those related to research are typically judged to be least likely to bring immediate results, and also the most difficult to judge in terms of adding value.  However, research functions do improve the technical specialization of organizations. Their purpose lies in providing support for the organization’s actions, strategic planning, and even business development. The appearance of research posts suggests that the public interest sector has reached a new stage of development. A few organizations have already established their own research departments. Beijing Normal University’s Philanthropy Research Institute (北师大壹基金公益研究院) has emerged as an organization set up to conduct research and provide support. While it resembles a think-tank, it also works closely with NGOs to meet their real needs and support capacity-building. The appearance and growth of support organizations and think tanks demonstrates that NGOs are beginning to consider long-term strategic development, and are laying the foundation to become more mature organizations.

Market ForcesThrough our research, we found that 68 positions related to the use of market-based mechanisms to solve social problems, such as support to CSR departments in private enterprises, and provision of consulting services to the philanthropic sector and NGOs.

In the past, these positions were often handed out on the basis of favoritism, with company staff transferred from one department to another. There was also little overlap between the commercial and non-profit sectors. Now, with an open recruitment process, companies are looking for professionals who understand the workings of the public interest and charity sectors to better support the engagement of the private sector in this area. This is clearly a step forward. Of course, a consequence of this process is that some NGO talent is being poached by the private sector. Yet this also implies that business personnel are migrating towards the public interest sector, to the extent that significant numbers of non-profits are founded by businessmen. This trend is helping to break the public interest sector’s past practice of hiring from a homogenous group. At the same time, the sector maintains its own values and norms, which those entering from the private sector must learn and understand.
We will roughly divide these market-based posts into three ranks: An upper rank of chairmen/directors and project supervisors; a middle rank of project managers; and a lower rank of project officers, assistants, secretaries and staff. (It should be noted that the same job title at a different organization may be at a different rank.) Using only the CDB’s limited statistics, most job openings were at the middle and lower ranks, and about equally divided among the two ranks. Of course, a verification of this assessment would require the support of a greater range of statistics. Even so, this would represent a substantial change from the 2002-2005 statistics. At the time, there was a spindle-shaped distribution, with most job postings for mid-level positions and few for those at either end. Now, mid-level and lower-level positions are equally matched.  One possible explanation is that, before 2005, organizations tended to be smaller. With so few staff, there was little division of labour or specialization. Many mid-level staff were performing lower-level functions. Now, as the scale of these organizations has expanded and project functions are further divided, the number of postings for lower-level jobs has increased dramatically. Today, there are slightly more postings for lower-level jobs than for mid-level positions. These trends are pointing to the development of a more reasonable, pyramid-like structure for NGOs.As shown below, NGOs today address the full range of social issues. Their human resources are, accordingly, quite diverse.  Our principles for classification of these jobs are in accordance first with the nature of the position and its responsibilities, followed by the field or thematic area in which the hiring organization is working. If the organization’s work covers a wide range of areas, without the possibility of subdivision, then it is classified as “other.”

Demand for social workers topped the list, with 301 postings. This is likely related to recent government policies encouraging the development of and support to social work organizations. The social work field is also an ideal one for possible government procurement of services from civil society. It should be noted that the number of “social worker” posts has been obtained based on a count of job postings containing “social work” in the headline.  In reality, this may intersect with a variety of other specific fields, including labor, child welfare, education, or community development.

After social work, the next highest number of job postings is in rural development and poverty alleviation (257), environmental protection (227), education (188), child welfare (149) and disabilities (127). A separate category was created for “climate change,” comprising those jobs that included “climate change” in the job title, but it should be noted that jobs in the “environment” and “bio-conservation” categories might also touch upon climate change.
Positions in research and technical support came in fourth, covering both internal capacity-building and support to partners.  The emergence of capacity building, which can be regarded as a support function, as well as the growth of research positions, suggest the increasing maturity of the public welfare sector.

We hope this simple review offered in our “Analysis of NGO Staff Recruitment” will provide useful observations of and further support to the development of civil society and provide a reflection on one aspect of the ever-changing public interest sector.

数字背后的秘密——NGO招聘分析

数据采集与制图:
中国发展简报2011秋季刊51卷
近 年来,公益事业进入快速发展期,从NGO对人力资源的需求情况能够透出一些有价值的相关信息。我们对一年的报告期内(2010年8月1日~2011年7月 31日)在中国发展简报网站(www.cdb.org.cn)上发布的各类机构的招聘广告进行了统计,并进行简要的归纳和分析,形成了本报告。这些职位来 自国内外NGO、基金会、联合国系统的多边机构、国际双边机构,还包括企业设立的与CSR相关的职位,以及应运而生,直接为公益机构/项目和企业的CSR 项目提供咨询策划的咨询公司。
鉴 于有些职位虚位以待却人才难觅,或者流动性大,一些机构出现过二次甚至三次发布同一招募信息的情况,为便捷起见,均视为不同职位,加之部分职位归类不容易 明晰,这些因素在一定程度上影响了统计的准确性。简报网站上发布的招聘信息,乃公益领域同类信息之沧海一粟,因此报告仅能从一个细微的侧面反映公益领域的 人才需求现实。简报将在未来基于网站数据,定期进行统计分析,总结出能够在一定程度上反映公益行业发展的有用信息。
本土组织“崛起”
在 发布的2133个职位空缺总数中,国内组织招聘数量是国际组织的2倍多,这个结果有些令人吃惊。回顾2005年,简报曾首次从网站招聘栏目提取数据并进行 分析。当时的数据涵盖了2002年8月8日~2005 年8月8日共三年时间,共有145个机构招聘619个职位,其中国际组织独揽天下,只有极少量职位 来自本土组织(www.cdb.org.cn/qikanarticleview.php?id=390)。
现 在,越来越多的本土组织通过公开招募方式招贤引能,不只反映它们在数量上的增长,也表明它们在人力资源管理上发生了一定变化。一些在过去与简报素无来往的 政府背景的公募基金会,也开始通过简报网站发布招聘信息,有意识利用行业公开渠道,这打破了原有的较为封闭的小圈子推荐的人才吸纳模式。从总量上看,现在一年的招聘数量是当时3年招聘总量的3倍多,反映了非营利部门的总体发展态势。
发 布职位数量位居前10的国内机构,其数量加总(437)超过了排位前10的国际机构的职位数量总和(362),从一个侧面表明本土组织对人力资源需求的增 长情况。值得注意的是,国内机构排位中,有4家均为社工服务中心,其中三家分布在广州和深圳,与当地政府从资金和注册等方面鼓励社工服务发展的地方性政策有很大关系。在统计口径上需要说明的是,排名前两位的恩派(NPI)和慧灵的职位数,包含了它们在各地同品牌分设机构的招聘数量,这些职位的就职地点并不限于北京。
当然,名列其中的国际机构,包括前两位的宣明会和香港乐施会,其需求同样是跨地域的,工作地点分布在本机构的地方办事处和项目点。
如果将国内和国际机构混合排位,我们发现国内机构有6家,超过半壁江山,而且占据了前两位。
哪里NGO扎堆
不难想象,在就职地点方面,北京这个资源汇聚之地,提供的职位数高居榜首。北京有着政策倡导、沟通内外的区位优势。从人才储备而言,北京的NGO人才市场容量最大,也比较适合公开化的招募方式。
其他地区的职位,在数量过百的省份和城市中,广东、上海、深圳位列前三,它们既是经济发达的沿海之地,同时也是在社会组织管理创新方面领风气之先的试验田。在吸纳与包容的魄力下,除了鼓励本地组织的发育,还筑巢引凤,吸引外来组织进驻。
当然,云南和四川也是长期以来NGO扎堆的地方,提供的职位数量同样过百。作为相对不发达的内地省份,川滇两省在孕育NGO方面历史悠久,这些组织覆盖的议 题领域也非常丰富。汶川5·12地震后,还催生了不少在四川从事救灾和灾后重建的组织,云南盈江地震进一步触发了这类组织更为长远地考虑联合救援的问题。 在时隔3年大浪淘沙之后,坚持下来的救灾组织已开始有意识地通过联合,为未来储备长远的救灾经验和能力。
9 个海外职位,尽管数量不多,但却能一叶知秋。这些发展领域的国际化职位在中国发布,面向中国人才,也许预示着中国人在国际发展领域开始展现潜力和价值。这 些职位需求绝大多数来自国际机构,总体上这主要不是因为中国公民社会在自己的发展领域取得了成功经验可以向外复制,也不意味着中国NGO进入了国际化转 型,开始从跨国和跨地区层面延展对一些全球化问题的关注。出现海外职位的原因,主要是由于中国作为全球化的大国产生了对外影响,国际机构越发需要懂得中国 问题的人士在跨国层面去开展工作,例如跨区域合作倡导去防范跨国人口贩卖和野生动物保护等。其二是经过国际发展机构多年在华运作,培养了既拥有国际视野,熟悉国际组织运作方式,同时又了解中国本土问题的本土人才;第三是由于经济发展,中国企业也开始被一些国际发展机构列为重要的筹款目标。
当然,静悄悄的变化也在发生着。不同于上述情况,打工子弟爱心会(CMC)今年2月通过简报网站招聘驻尼泊尔和孟加拉的海外项目经理,负责建立当地社区中心 的开拓性工作。CMC由美国人Jonathan Hursh创办,总部设在中国,通过社区中心项目为流动儿童、青少年和社区提供服务。目前,CMC已在打 工人群聚居的北京几个社区及上海市闵行区建有社区中心,目前正在将中国的项目经验复制到尼泊尔和孟加拉,是中国社区实践的对外拓展。中国发展简报2011年春季刊曾报道英国海外志愿服务社(VSO)招募第一批中国民间志愿者赴非洲从事志愿工作,也属此例。据悉,中国扶贫基金会今年年中招募8~10名医疗志 愿者援助苏丹,提高当地妇幼保健系统的能力,借鉴了该基金会在国内运行十年的母婴平安项目的经验。
“酒好得勤喝”
零点集团2010年12月发布的《中国公益人才发展现状及需求调研报告》,将NGO岗位细分为三类:一是发展型岗位,包括公关传播、筹资和研究等不直接影响 项目实施,但对机构或项目的持续发展起关键作用的岗位;二是操作性岗位(即项目运营);三是财务,行政、IT等对机构的管理和运营提供基础支持的岗位。这 样的分类颇具系统性,有助于理解NGO在各种职能设置上的轻重缓急。
简报统计发现,项目运营提供了1505个岗位,位居首位,超过职位总数的70%。而行政、财务和人力资源管理等支持性岗位数(305个)位居第二,占总数的14%。对具有一定规模的组织而言,支持性岗位也是必然的配置。
值 得注意的是媒体公关类,提供了141个职位并位居第三。这些年NGO对这项职能的重视程度高涨,与公益事业的主流化有关,也有来自企业的跨界影响。由于资 助来源从国际大量转向国内,公众和媒体对公益的兴趣与支持力度,与机构的品牌建设和社会影响力越来越相关。透明度和品牌而非小范围的内部评估和问责机制,成为筹款的重要基础。
此外是公益跨界现象带来的来自公司的理念影响。有的机构将职位冠以“营销与品牌推广”这样一个具有明显市场特征的名称,更加凸显对品牌建设的重视。如上海的真爱梦想基金会是商业背景主导的团队,将IT、筹资、和媒体公关职能重叠在一起,营销与品牌推广经理,整合了媒体关系开发与维护、监测,网络平台管理和营 销、公益品牌推广和筹款等多种职能于一身。2010年4月真爱梦想首创以上市公司年报方式发布2009年的年度公益报告,接受捐赠人和公众的监督,更加让 人看出创办者将市场规则运用于公益领域的匠心。
贵 州薪火乡村发展基金会由关注乡村教育、民族文化、乡村卫生的沿海企业家和专家等共同发起成立。4月份通过简报网站招聘品牌和IT经理,负责对外传播、媒体关系、危机处理、以及网站、博客、微博等网络平台规划管理。NPI旗下的上海公益事业发展基金会招募资源拓展经理,兼有筹款和机构品牌形象宣传的职能。实 际上,不少历史悠久的大型倡导性组织如绿色和平,早就设立了专职部门和岗位负责媒体公关,拥有丰富的传媒经验,而且还在网络上发起针对不良企业的压力行 动。而本土组织是在最近几年才开始重视对外传播,在“酒好不怕巷子深”之外,还得加上“酒好还得勤吆喝”。
专业细分和实习生替代
随着NGO的发展,呈现了专业化和职业化的趋势。上述运营、支持和发展型三类岗位均出现细分,驱动着对人才的专业背景的细化要求。体现在法律维权、小额贷款、投资、社工和心理服务、环保、IT技术、财会等等一些岗位,要求以对口的教育背景为支撑。
一些草根机构缺乏人力,同时无项目预算支持,它们的替代性做法是公开招募实习生和志愿者岗位,并赋予实质性的工作责任,甚至是多种复合职能,以实际的工作内容吸引人才加入,其前提是机构能够提供很好的职业规划和督导,参与者适得其所获得好的锻炼机会,积攒阅历。
网是草根的机会
传 播方面,除了设立媒体公关专员的做法,由于微博、博客等新媒体(自媒体)功能凸显,只要投入时间,懂得网络传媒的特性,有钱没钱的机构都可以站在平等的起 跑线上,倒是更为平等。一个突出的岗位细分现象,是一些机构将网络传播单列出来,机构内有人负责打理微博、SNS等互联网平台。这是草根的机会。
IT(网 站维护等)是技术工种,主要负责机构的网络技术维护、网页设计和编程。例如中民慈善信息中心定位为慈善信息资讯平台,4月招聘技术总监一名,负责信息平台 的开发和后台开发管理,同时招募两名研发工程师负责业务系统需求分析、规划、设计和软件开发;这些都要求很高的IT专业性,并未采用通常的外包方式,初看 看上去,像是一个软件公司在招人。这是个案。
当然,资源上捉襟见肘的草根组织,还无意识或者无资源以专人负责支持型岗位。更不用说像IT、筹资、研究等发展型岗位了。它们的应对之策,或者是暂无IT功能,或是外包IT服务,筹资和公关由领导人或资深员工兼任,他们需要拥有三头六臂。
在所有岗位中,研究类当属最不“急功近利”,最不易看到可衡量产出,但却有助于提升组织专业性和问题敏感的职能,意在为机构的行动、策略方向甚至行业发展提 供支持。研究类岗位的出现也许暗示着公益组织和行业发展到了新的阶段。一些组织成立了自己的研究部,也新出现了像北师大壹基金公益研究院在内,以行业研究和支持为目标、类智库但试图与NGO现实需求紧密结合的支持性能力建设机构。支持性组织和类智库机构在公益行业出现及其成长,表明NGO开始在战略高度考 虑组织长远发展,这是公益行业迈向成熟的基础。
的力量
此次统计,我们发现有68个职位来自试图以市场机制解决社会问题的社会企业,以及企业的CSR部门(项目),还包括为企业的慈善公益行为和NGO提供咨询服务的新兴咨询类公司。
过 去,这类职位通常是“任人唯亲”,由公司内部其他部门的人员调任,市场上也没有太多能够兼容商业和非营利领域的人才可供选择。现在公开招募,也反映出这些公司希望通过公益市场找到懂得公益慈善运作规律的人才来打理自己的公益项目和捐赠事宜,这是一个明显的进步。当然,结果是一些NGO中的人才被挖了过去。 与此对应的是企业人才向公益领域的流动,甚至,企业界人士自创非营利组织的情况也为数不少,这有助于打破过去公益界人才背景的单一化状态。同样,公益也有自身的价值取向和规律,需要有志公益的企业人士学习。
我 们将职位大致分为三个层级:首席代表和项目总监等机构高层人员;包括项目经理在内的中层人员;项目主任/项目官员、项目主管、助理、干事等普通人员(同样 的职务名称在不同规模的机构可能意味着不同的层级)。仅仅就简报有限的统计表明,NGO的人才需求主要分布在中层和基层两个层面,而且需求大致相等。当然,这个判断的真实性还需要更大规模的样本来支持。相比简报在2005年首度进行的调查结果已有很大变化,当时的职级分布呈现出两头小,中间大的纺锤形结 构,中级职位需求占比最大。现在是中层和初级普通员工不相上下。一个可能的解释是,2005年前机构规模大多数偏小,因人力有限,职能无法细分,许多中层 人员兼任初级职能,而现在随着机构规模的扩大和项目职能的细分,初级职位数量比以前大大增加,并且略超过中层职位数,趋向于形成较为合理的金字塔型的人员 结构。
如图所示,NGO在应对社会问题方面,职位需求分布非常多元化,基本涵盖了社会问题的各个领域。我们的归类原则是首先按照职位针对的领域和议题,其次按照机构所在领域,如果机构活动领域覆盖范围广泛,无法细分子领域,则归入“其他”类。
社工位居榜首,提供了301个岗位,与政府有意鼓励和引导社工服务机构发展的政策取向有很大关系,这是政府比较中意的优先采购民间服务的领域。需要指出的是,这个数量是我们是以“社工”直接冠名的岗位进行统计得到的结果。实际上,此类中的一些岗位,可能与劳工、儿童、教育、社区建设等具体的服务领域职位有 交叉。
位居其二的是扶贫农村发展(257),环保(227)、教育(188)、儿童(149)和助残(127)也不少。气候变化的职位数,是指在岗位名称中标明“气候变化”的职位,在环保/动物保护这个类别中,也可能有的职位涉及气候变化。
包括研究和行业支持在内的能力建设(196)排在第4,既有面向机构自身和合作伙伴能力建设需求的职位,也有面向公益行业的职位。能力建设作为支持性岗位的发展,以及上面谈到的在公益资源支撑下出现的研究类发展型岗位的出现,是反映公益行业发展成熟度的一个指标。
 《NGO人员招聘分析》是一个粗浅的报告,我们希望它能够为观察和推动公民社会发展的机构和人员提供有价值的信息,从一个侧面反射公益领域日新月异发生的变化。

Translated by Jeremy Balch

Reviewed by Frankie Chen

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